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Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status. Glucagon enhances glucose output from the liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein). When cellular ATP levels are low, however,(More)
A quantitative study of the regional cerebral responses to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in six normal volunteers has been done by monitoring serial measurements of regional blood flow measured by positron emission tomography (PET). In comparison to a baseline of warm stimulation no statistically significant changes in blood flow were seen in(More)
In vivo opioid receptor binding in the cortical projections of the medial (cingulate and prefrontal cortex) and lateral pain system (primary somatosensory cortex) in male volunteers has been quantitated using [11C]diprenorphine and positron emission tomography. High levels of opioid receptor binding were seen in the cortical projections of the medial pain(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are important therapeutic targets in various disease models and are under clinical trials for cancer patients. However, their function in obesity and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Our data show that adipose tissues of both mice and humans contain a population of type 1 NKT cells, whose abundance decreases with increased(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality. Many studies have assessed the association between maternal gene polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and the risk of having a DS offspring, but data are conflicting. Our study aimed to arrive at a more accurate estimation. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis of 26, 17, 9, 15, 9 and(More)
To examine the role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (Atm) in telomere function, we generated Atm and telomerase null mice (Atm(-/-) mTR(-/-) iG6 mice). These mice exhibited increased germ cell death and chromosome fusions compared with either Atm(-/-) or mTR(-/-) iG6 mice. Furthermore, the Atm(-/-) mTR(--) iG6 mice had a delayed onset and reduced incidence(More)
Increases in adiposity trigger metabolic and inflammatory changes that interfere with insulin action in peripheral tissues, culminating in beta cell failure and overt diabetes. We found that the cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated in adipose cells under obese conditions, where it promotes insulin resistance by triggering expression of(More)
Rare earth cerium oxide (ceria) nanoparticles are stabilized using end-functional phosphonated-PEG oligomers. The complexation process and structure of the resulting hybrid core-shell singlet nanocolloids are described, characterized, and modeled using light and neutron scattering data. The adsorption mechanism is nonstoichiometric, yielding the number of(More)
Cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or unfolded protein response (UPR) is a key defense mechanism associated with many human diseases. Despite its basic and clinical importance, the extent of ER stress inflicted by physiological and pathophysiological conditions remains difficult to quantitate, posing a huge obstacle that has hindered our(More)
We are developing vaccines for inducing immunity to metastatic cancers. Although primary tumors are frequently cured by surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, metastatic lesions often do not respond to these treatments or proliferate after conventional therapy is terminated. Vaccine therapy for established metastases as well as prophylactic vaccine(More)