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Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status. Glucagon enhances glucose output from the liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein). When cellular ATP levels are low, however,(More)
A quantitative study of the regional cerebral responses to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in six normal volunteers has been done by monitoring serial measurements of regional blood flow measured by positron emission tomography (PET). In comparison to a baseline of warm stimulation no statistically significant changes in blood flow were seen in(More)
During fasting, increased concentrations of circulating catecholamines promote the mobilization of lipid stores from adipose tissue in part by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe a parallel pathway, in which the pseudokinase Tribbles 3 (TRB3), whose(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are important therapeutic targets in various disease models and are under clinical trials for cancer patients. However, their function in obesity and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Our data show that adipose tissues of both mice and humans contain a population of type 1 NKT cells, whose abundance decreases with increased(More)
MHC class II-restricted tumor Ags presented by class II(+) tumor cells identified to date are derived from proteins expressed in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of tumor cells. It is unclear whether MHC class II(+) tumor cells present class II-restricted epitopes derived from other intracellular compartments, such as nuclei and/or mitochondria, and whether(More)
In vivo opioid receptor binding in the cortical projections of the medial (cingulate and prefrontal cortex) and lateral pain system (primary somatosensory cortex) in male volunteers has been quantitated using [11C]diprenorphine and positron emission tomography. High levels of opioid receptor binding were seen in the cortical projections of the medial pain(More)
The growth of energy consumption has been explosive in current data centers, super computers, and public cloud systems. This explosion has led to greater advocacy of green computing, and many efforts and works focus on the task scheduling in order to reduce energy dissipation. In order to obtain more energy reduction as well as maintain the quality of(More)
S100B is a calcium-binding protein, mainly produced and secreted by astrocytes, and it mediates the interaction among glial cells and between glial cells and neurons. Recently, several studies have shown increased serum 100B levels in patients with schizophrenia, suggesting that S100B might be relevant to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. To examine the(More)
Inflammation in adipose tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity-associated complications. However, the detailed cellular events underlying the inflammatory changes at the onset of obesity have not been characterized. Here we show that an acute HFD challenge is unexpectedly associated with elevated alternative (M2) macrophage(More)
Increases in adiposity trigger metabolic and inflammatory changes that interfere with insulin action in peripheral tissues, culminating in beta cell failure and overt diabetes. We found that the cAMP Response Element Binding protein (CREB) is activated in adipose cells under obese conditions, where it promotes insulin resistance by triggering expression of(More)