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Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status. Glucagon enhances glucose output from the liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein). When cellular ATP levels are low, however,(More)
A quantitative study of the regional cerebral responses to non-painful and painful thermal stimuli in six normal volunteers has been done by monitoring serial measurements of regional blood flow measured by positron emission tomography (PET). In comparison to a baseline of warm stimulation no statistically significant changes in blood flow were seen in(More)
MHC class II-restricted tumor Ags presented by class II(+) tumor cells identified to date are derived from proteins expressed in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of tumor cells. It is unclear whether MHC class II(+) tumor cells present class II-restricted epitopes derived from other intracellular compartments, such as nuclei and/or mitochondria, and whether(More)
In vivo opioid receptor binding in the cortical projections of the medial (cingulate and prefrontal cortex) and lateral pain system (primary somatosensory cortex) in male volunteers has been quantitated using [11C]diprenorphine and positron emission tomography. High levels of opioid receptor binding were seen in the cortical projections of the medial pain(More)
Natural killer T (NKT) cells are important therapeutic targets in various disease models and are under clinical trials for cancer patients. However, their function in obesity and type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Our data show that adipose tissues of both mice and humans contain a population of type 1 NKT cells, whose abundance decreases with increased(More)
We are developing vaccines for inducing immunity to metastatic cancers. Although primary tumors are frequently cured by surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy, metastatic lesions often do not respond to these treatments or proliferate after conventional therapy is terminated. Vaccine therapy for established metastases as well as prophylactic vaccine(More)
During fasting, increased concentrations of circulating catecholamines promote the mobilization of lipid stores from adipose tissue in part by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe a parallel pathway, in which the pseudokinase Tribbles 3 (TRB3), whose(More)
The fields of immunology and metabolism are rapidly converging on adipose tissue. During obesity, many immune cells infiltrate or populate in adipose tissue and promote a low-grade chronic inflammation. Studies to date have suggested that perturbation of inflammation is critically linked to nutrient metabolic pathways and to obesity-associated complications(More)
To examine the role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (Atm) in telomere function, we generated Atm and telomerase null mice (Atm(-/-) mTR(-/-) iG6 mice). These mice exhibited increased germ cell death and chromosome fusions compared with either Atm(-/-) or mTR(-/-) iG6 mice. Furthermore, the Atm(-/-) mTR(--) iG6 mice had a delayed onset and reduced incidence(More)
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal abnormality. Many studies have assessed the association between maternal gene polymorphisms involved in folate metabolism and the risk of having a DS offspring, but data are conflicting. Our study aimed to arrive at a more accurate estimation. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis of 26, 17, 9, 15, 9 and(More)