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Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status. Glucagon enhances glucose output from the liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein). When cellular ATP levels are low, however,(More)
Chronic Inflammation is a key link between obesity and insulin resistance. We previously showed that two nutrient sensors AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 interact to regulate macrophage inflammation. AMPK is also a molecular target of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), which has been shown to reduce insulin resistance(More)
Cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or unfolded protein response (UPR) is a key defense mechanism associated with many human diseases. Despite its basic and clinical importance, the extent of ER stress inflicted by physiological and pathophysiological conditions remains difficult to quantitate, posing a huge obstacle that has hindered our(More)
The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes, thereby regulating systemic glucose homeostasis.(More)
Inflammasome activation in adipose tissue has been implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, when and how inflammasome is activated in adipose tissue remains speculative. Here we test the hypothesis that extracellular ATP, a potent stimulus of inflammasome in macrophages via purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion(More)
Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated the anticancer activity of PD-0332991, a selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 (CDK4/6) inhibitor, in the treatment of various types of cancer in a retinoblastoma protein (RB)-dependent manner. However, it remains unclear whether CDK4, CDK6 or both are required for RB phosphorylation in colorectal carcinoma(More)
The availability of acyl-Coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) thioester compounds affects numerous cellular functions including autophagy, lipid oxidation and synthesis, and post-translational modifications. Consequently, the acyl-CoA level changes tend to be associated with other metabolic alterations that regulate these critical cellular functions. Despite their(More)
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an incurable chronic idiopathic disease that drastically decreases quality of life. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) is responsible for the clearance of misfolded proteins; however, its role in disease pathogenesis remains largely unexplored. Here we show that the expression of SEL1L and HRD1, the(More)
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) represents a principle quality control mechanism to clear misfolded proteins in the ER; however, its physiological significance and the nature of endogenous ERAD substrates remain largely unexplored. Here we discover that IRE1α, the sensor of the unfolded protein response (UPR), is a bona fide(More)
The purified total sterols and β-sitosterol extracted from Sargassum horneri were evaluated for their antidepressant-like activity using the forced swim test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. Total sterols and β-sitosterol significantly reduced the immobility time in the FST and TST. Total sterols were administered orally for 7 days at doses of(More)