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Glucose homeostasis is regulated systemically by hormones such as insulin and glucagon, and at the cellular level by energy status. Glucagon enhances glucose output from the liver during fasting by stimulating the transcription of gluconeogenic genes via the cyclic AMP-inducible factor CREB (CRE binding protein). When cellular ATP levels are low, however,(More)
To examine the role of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (Atm) in telomere function, we generated Atm and telomerase null mice (Atm(-/-) mTR(-/-) iG6 mice). These mice exhibited increased germ cell death and chromosome fusions compared with either Atm(-/-) or mTR(-/-) iG6 mice. Furthermore, the Atm(-/-) mTR(--) iG6 mice had a delayed onset and reduced incidence(More)
During fasting, increased concentrations of circulating catecholamines promote the mobilization of lipid stores from adipose tissue in part by phosphorylating and inactivating acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC), the rate-limiting enzyme in fatty acid synthesis. Here, we describe a parallel pathway, in which the pseudokinase Tribbles 3 (TRB3), whose(More)
Chronic Inflammation is a key link between obesity and insulin resistance. We previously showed that two nutrient sensors AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and SIRT1 interact to regulate macrophage inflammation. AMPK is also a molecular target of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR), which has been shown to reduce insulin resistance(More)
Cellular response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress or unfolded protein response (UPR) is a key defense mechanism associated with many human diseases. Despite its basic and clinical importance, the extent of ER stress inflicted by physiological and pathophysiological conditions remains difficult to quantitate, posing a huge obstacle that has hindered our(More)
The global obesity epidemic is associated with a series of health-threatening diseases including type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggest that the physiology and homeostasis of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is intimately involved in the underlying mechanisms linking obesity and diabetes. Specifically, recent studies indicate a crucial role for the(More)
The UPR (unfolded protein response), a cellular defence mechanism against misfolded protein accumulation in the ER (endoplasmic reticulum), is associated with many human diseases such as aging, cancer and diabetes. XBP1 (X-box-binding protein 1), a key transcription factor of the UPR, is critical in maintaining ER homoeostasis. Nevertheless, the mechanism(More)
Increasing evidence suggests that TRB3, a mammalian homolog of Drosophila tribbles, plays an important role in cell growth, differentiation, and metabolism. In the liver, TRB3 binds and inhibits Akt activity, whereas in adipocytes, TRB3 upregulates fatty acid oxidation. In cultured muscle cells, TRB3 has been identified as a potential regulator of insulin(More)
Inflammasome activation in adipose tissue has been implicated in obesity-associated insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, when and how inflammasome is activated in adipose tissue remains speculative. Here we test the hypothesis that extracellular ATP, a potent stimulus of inflammasome in macrophages via purinergic receptor P2X, ligand-gated ion(More)
The physiological role of the spliced form of X-box-binding protein 1 (XBP1s), a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response, in adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this study, we show that overexpression of XBP1s promotes adiponectin multimerization in adipocytes, thereby regulating systemic glucose homeostasis.(More)