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To define alterations of neuronal connectivity that occur during motor neuron degeneration, we characterized the function and structure of spinal circuitry in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) model mice. SMA motor neurons show reduced proprioceptive reflexes that correlate with decreased number and function of synapses on motor neuron somata and proximal(More)
The motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) causes profound muscle weakness that most often leads to early death. At autopsy, SMA is characterized by loss of motor neurons and muscle atrophy, but the initial cellular events that precipitate motor unit dysfunction and loss remain poorly characterized. Here, we examined the function and(More)
Expansion of a polyglutamine tract in the androgen receptor (AR) causes spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). We previously showed that Akt-mediated phosphorylation of AR reduces ligand binding and attenuates the mutant AR toxicity. Here, we show that in culture insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) reduces AR aggregation and increases AR clearance via(More)
The inherited motor neuron disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by deficient expression of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and results in severe muscle weakness. In SMA mice, synaptic dysfunction of both neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) and central sensorimotor synapses precedes motor neuron cell death. To address whether this synaptic(More)
The present study was performed to explore the involvement of opioid receptors in the antinociception induced by a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist in rats. The hindpaw withdrawal latency (HWL) to noxious thermal and mechanical stimulation was assessed by hot plate test and the Randall Selitto Test. Intrathecal(More)
Studies demonstrated that intrathecal 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6-nitro-2, 3-dioxo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide disodium (NBQX), an antagonist of AMPA/kainate receptors, induced antinociception in the spinal cord of rats. The present study demonstrated that the NBQX-induced increases in hindpaw withdrawal latencies (HWLs) were dose-dependently attenuated by(More)
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