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Glucosensing neurons are specialized cells that use glucose as a signaling molecule to alter their action potential frequency in response to variations in ambient glucose levels. Glucokinase (GK) appears to be the primary regulator of most neuronal glucosensing, but other regulators almost certainly exist. Glucose-excited neurons increase their activity(More)
To evaluate potential mechanisms for neuronal glucosensing, fura-2 Ca(2+) imaging and single-cell RT-PCR were carried out in dissociated ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) neurons. Glucose-excited (GE) neurons increased and glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons decreased intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) oscillations as glucose increased from 0.5 to 2.5(More)
To test the hypothesis that glucokinase is a critical regulator of neuronal glucosensing, glucokinase activity was increased, using a glucokinase activator drug, or decreased, using RNA interference combined with calcium imaging in freshly dissociated ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) neurons or primary ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH; VMN plus arcuate(More)
Specialized neurons utilize glucose as a signaling molecule to alter their firing rate. Glucose-excited (GE) neurons increase and glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons reduce activity as ambient glucose levels rise. Glucose-induced changes in the ATP-to-ADP ratio in GE neurons modulate the activity of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel, which determines the rate of(More)
Antecedent insulin-induced hypoglycemia (IIH) reduces adrenomedullary responses (AMR) to subsequent bouts of hypoglycemia. The ventromedial hypothalamus [VMH: arcuate (ARC) + ventromedial nuclei] contains glucosensing neurons, which are thought to be mediators of these AMR. Since type 1 diabetes mellitus often begins in childhood, we used juvenile (4- to(More)
G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 1 (GPBAR1/TGR5/M-Bar/GPR131) is a cell surface receptor involved in the regulation of bile acid metabolism. We have previously shown that Gpbar1-null mice are resistant to cholesterol gallstone disease when fed a lithogenic diet. Other published studies have suggested that Gpbar1 is involved in both energy homeostasis(More)
We experimentally investigated the thermal escape from a metastable state in a Josephson tunnel junction subjected to an oscillating effective temperature. A minimum of the average escape time is observed at certain oscillation frequency. Our results confirm that the resonant activation can be caused not only by the oscillating barrier but also by the(More)
OBJECTIVES Platensimycin (PTM) is a natural antibiotic produced by Streptomyces platensis that selectively inhibits bacterial and mammalian fatty acid synthase (FAS) without affecting synthesis of other lipids. Recently, we reported that oral administration of PTM in mouse models (db/db and db/+) with high de novo lipogenesis (DNL) tone inhibited DNL and(More)
BACKGROUND Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS)/MS is a proven reliable tool for visualizing the spatial distribution of dosed drugs and their primary metabolites in animal tissue sections. MATERIALS & METHODS The rat brain tissue sections coated with dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix, were analyzed by(More)
OBJECTIVES To investigate the distribution of the serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) levels and its relationship with obesity, hypertension and diabetes in a Uygur case-control study on hypertension. DESIGN A case-control (339 hypertensive cases, 272 normotensive controls) study on hypertension was conducted, and obesity, hypertension,(More)