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The discovery of oxysterols as the endogenous liver X receptor (LXR) ligands and subsequent gene targeting studies in mice provided strong evidence that LXR plays a central role in cholesterol metabolism. The identification here of a synthetic, nonsteroidal LXR-selective agonist series represented by T0314407 and T0901317 revealed a novel physiological role(More)
To understand how the Wnt coreceptor LRP-5 is involved in transducing the canonical Wnt signals, we identified Axin as a protein that interacts with the intracellular domain of LRP-5. LRP-5, when expressed in fibroblast cells, showed no effect on the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by itself, but acted synergistically with Wnt. In contrast, LRP-5 mutants(More)
During normal development of the vertebrate nervous system, large numbers of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous system undergo naturally occurring cell death. For example, about half of all spinal motor neurons die over a period of a few days in developing avian, rat and mouse embryos. Previous studies have shown that extracts from muscle and(More)
Several nuclear hormone receptors involved in lipid metabolism form obligate heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and are activated by RXR agonists such as rexinoids. Animals treated with rexinoids exhibited marked changes in cholesterol balance, including inhibition of cholesterol absorption and repressed bile acid synthesis. Studies with(More)
The activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1) is a type I receptor for transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family proteins. Expression of ALK1 in blood vessels and mutations of the ALK1 gene in human type II hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia patients suggest that ALK1 may have an important role during vascular development. To define the function of(More)
Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD; EC 1.1.1.195) has been thought to mediate the reduction of both coniferaldehyde and sinapaldehyde into guaiacyl and syringyl monolignols in angiosperms. Here, we report the isolation of a novel aspen gene (PtSAD) encoding sinapyl alcohol dehydrogenase (SAD), which is phylogenetically distinct from aspen CAD (PtCAD).(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVE To develop a self administered Chinese (mainland) version of the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) for use in health related quality of life measurements in China. DESIGN A three stage protocol was followed including translation, tests of scaling construction and scoring assumptions, validation, and normalisation. SETTING 1000 households(More)
A central question in lignin biosynthesis is how guaiacyl intermediates are hydroxylated and methylated to the syringyl monolignol in angiosperms. To address this question, we cloned cDNAs encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase (LsM88) and a caffeate O-methyltransferase (COMT) from sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) xylem. Mass spectrometry-based(More)
Ventricular arrhythmias and contractile dysfunction are the main causes of death in human heart failure (HF). In a rabbit HF model reproducing these same aspects of human HF, we demonstrate that a 2-fold functional upregulation of Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchange (NaCaX) unloads sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) stores, reducing Ca(2+) transients and contractile(More)
Synapsin I has been proposed to be involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release by controlling the availability of synaptic vesicles for exocytosis. To further understand the role of synapsin I in the function of adult nerve terminals, we studied synapsin I-deficient mice generated by homologous recombination. The organization of synaptic vesicles(More)