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Melanoma is the most serious, highly aggressive form of skin cancer with recent dramatic increases in incidence. Current therapies are relatively ineffective, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms contributing to the disease. We have previously shown that activation of Rap1 promotes melanoma cell proliferation and(More)
Ghrelin is a newly discovered brain-gut peptide and an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogues receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin and GHS-R present extensively in central and peripheral tissues such as stomach, brain and other organs of rodent and human, which suggest it has multiple biological effects. It has been reported that ghrelin has significant(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Arterial bifurcation apices are common sites for cerebral aneurysms, raising the possibility that the unique hemodynamic conditions associated with flow dividers predispose the apical vessel wall to aneurysm formation. This study sought to identify the specific hemodynamic insults that lead to maladaptive vascular remodeling(More)
Graves' disease (GD) is one of the most common human autoimmune diseases, and recent data estimated a prevalence of clinical hyperthyroidism of 0.25-1.09% in the population. Several reports have linked GD to the region 5q12-q33; and a locus between markers D5s436 and D5s434 was specifically linked to GD susceptibility in the Chinese population. In the(More)
High mutation frequency during reverse transcription has a principal role in the genetic variation of primate lentiviral populations. It is the main driving force for the generation of drug resistance and the escape from immune surveillance. G to A hypermutation is one of the characteristics of primate lentiviruses, as well as other retroviruses, during(More)
PURPOSE Clinical studies have detected an unexpected inhibition of diabetic retinopathy by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, but the mechanism for this action is unclear. In light of evidence indicating that the severity of hyperglycemia is a major initiating factor in the pathogenesis of the retinopathy, this study was conducted to examine(More)
This study investigated the anticancer effects of embelin in human gastric cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Gastric cancer cells were treated with embelin and 5-FU for methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide cell viability assay and flow cytometric detection of cell viability and apoptosis. Protein pathway array (PPA) and Western blot were(More)
Oxidative stress mediated by hyperglycaemia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes significantly to the development and progression of diabetes and related vascular complications. NAD(P)H oxidase has been implicated as the major source of ROS generation in the vasculature in response to high glucose and advanced glycation(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, prolonged survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS We did an(More)
In order to investigate the toxic effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) and sustained high glucose (SHG) on rat pancreatic beta cell functions and the potential involved mechanisms, isolated rat islets and INS-1 beta cells were exposed to SHG (25 mmol/l) or IHG (11.1 and 25 mmol/l glucose alternating every 12 h) for 72 h. The results showed that IHG(More)