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Ghrelin is a newly discovered brain-gut peptide and an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogues receptor (GHS-R). Ghrelin and GHS-R present extensively in central and peripheral tissues such as stomach, brain and other organs of rodent and human, which suggest it has multiple biological effects. It has been reported that ghrelin has significant(More)
High mutation frequency during reverse transcription has a principal role in the genetic variation of primate lentiviral populations. It is the main driving force for the generation of drug resistance and the escape from immune surveillance. G to A hypermutation is one of the characteristics of primate lentiviruses, as well as other retroviruses, during(More)
PURPOSE Clinical studies have detected an unexpected inhibition of diabetic retinopathy by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, but the mechanism for this action is unclear. In light of evidence indicating that the severity of hyperglycemia is a major initiating factor in the pathogenesis of the retinopathy, this study was conducted to examine(More)
This study investigated the anticancer effects of embelin in human gastric cancer cells and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Gastric cancer cells were treated with embelin and 5-FU for methyl-thiazolyl-tetrazolium bromide cell viability assay and flow cytometric detection of cell viability and apoptosis. Protein pathway array (PPA) and Western blot were(More)
Oxidative stress mediated by hyperglycaemia-induced generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributes significantly to the development and progression of diabetes and related vascular complications. NAD(P)H oxidase has been implicated as the major source of ROS generation in the vasculature in response to high glucose and advanced glycation(More)
In order to investigate the toxic effect of intermittent high glucose (IHG) and sustained high glucose (SHG) on rat pancreatic beta cell functions and the potential involved mechanisms, isolated rat islets and INS-1 beta cells were exposed to SHG (25 mmol/l) or IHG (11.1 and 25 mmol/l glucose alternating every 12 h) for 72 h. The results showed that IHG(More)
BACKGROUND Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2)-mediated signalling and angiogenesis can contribute to the pathogenesis and progression of gastric cancer. We aimed to assess whether ramucirumab, a monoclonal antibody VEGFR-2 antagonist, prolonged survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS We did an(More)
OBJECT Hemodynamic insult has been speculated to be a key factor in intracranial aneurysm formation; however, it is unclear whether a sustained insult is necessary. The authors examined whether aneurysmal degradation would continue despite the normalization of wall shear stress (WSS) by adaptive outward vascular remodeling. METHODS Twenty-five rabbits(More)
Population-based studies have demonstrated that subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis (OR = 1.9). However, this connection cannot be entirely explained by dyslipidemia accompanied by SCH. Lipid peroxidation also plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Hemodynamic insults at arterial bifurcations are hypothesized to play a key role in intracranial aneurysm formation. This study investigates aneurysm-initiating vascular responses at the rabbit basilar terminus subsequent to common carotid artery ligation. METHODS Nine adult female New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to sham,(More)