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Glycogen is a complex glucose polymer found in a variety of tissues, including brain, where it is localized primarily in astrocytes. The small quantity found in brain compared to e.g., liver has led to the understanding that brain glycogen is merely used during hypoglycemia or ischemia. In this review evidence is brought forward highlighting what has been(More)
Glucose and glycogen are essential sources of energy for maintaining glutamate homeostasis as well as glutamatergic neurotransmission. The metabolism of glycogen, the location of which is confined to astrocytes, is affected by norepinephrine (NE), and hence, adrenergic signaling in the astrocyte might affect glutamate homeostasis with implications for(More)
We have previously investigated the relative roles of extracellular glucose and lactate as fuels for glutamatergic neurons during synaptic activity. The conclusion from these studies was that cultured glutamatergic neurons utilize glucose rather than lactate during NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate)-induced synaptic activity and that lactate alone is not able to(More)
The ketogenic diet has multiple beneficial effects not only in treatment of epilepsy, but also in that of glucose transporter 1 deficiency, cancer, Parkinson's disease, obesity and pain. Thus, there is an increasing interest in understanding the mechanism behind this metabolic therapy. Patients on a ketogenic diet reach high plasma levels of ketone bodies,(More)
The polyether antibiotic ionomycin is a common research tool employed to raise cytosolic Ca2+ in almost any cell type. Although initially thought to directly cause physicochemical translocation of extracellular Ca2+ into the cytosol, a number of studies have demonstrated that the mechanism of action is likely to be more complex, involving modulation of(More)
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