Line Sinnathamby Reinert

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Viruses are recognized by the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). For instance, HSV virions and genomic DNA are recognized by TLR2 and TLR9, respectively. Although several viruses and viral components have been shown to stimulate cells through TLRs, only very few studies have defined essential roles for single TLRs in innate(More)
Vitamin D deficiency during the fetal period or infancy is one of the suggested environmental factors for type 1 diabetes and for its increasing incidence. To test this hypothesis we compared serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels during early pregnancy in mothers of children who subsequently developed type 1 diabetes (case mothers) with mothers of(More)
The innate immune system constitutes the first line of defense against infections and is also important for initiating the development of an adaptive immune response. The innate immune system recognizes microbial infection through germline-encoded pattern recognition receptors, which are responsible for decoding the microbial fingerprint and activating an(More)
Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) are highly prevalent neurotropic viruses. While they can replicate lytically in cells of the epithelial lineage, causing lesions on mucocutaneous surfaces, HSVs also establish latent infections in neurons, which act as reservoirs of virus for subsequent reactivation events. Immunological control of HSV involves activation of(More)
Detection of microbes by TLRs on the plasma membrane leads to the induction of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, via activation of NF-κB. Alternatively, activation of endosomal TLRs leads to the induction of type I IFNs via IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). TLR4 signaling from the plasma membrane to NF-κB via the Toll/IL-1R (TIR) adaptor protein MyD88(More)
The innate immune system mediates protection against neurotropic viruses capable of infecting the central nervous system (CNS). Neurotropic viruses include herpes simplex virus (HSV), West Nile virus (WNV), rabies virus, La Crosse virus, and poliovirus. Viral infection triggers activation of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors(More)
Mucosal surfaces are exposed to environmental substances and represent a major portal of entry for microorganisms. The innate immune system is responsible for early defense against infections and it is believed that the interferons (IFNs) constitute the first line of defense against viruses. Here we identify an innate antiviral pathway that works at(More)
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is the most common form of acute viral encephalitis in industrialized countries. Type I interferon (IFN) is important for control of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we show that microglia are the main source of HSV-induced type I IFN expression in CNS cells and these cytokines are(More)
Interleukin (IL) -21 is produced by Natural Killer T (NKT) cells and CD4(+) T cells and is produced in response to virus infections, where IL-21 has been shown to be essential in adaptive immune responses. Cells from the innate immune system such as Natural Killer (NK) cells and macrophages are also important in immune protection against virus. These cells(More)
The anti-HIV microbicide, tenofovir (TFV) gel, has been shown to decrease HIV-1 acquisition by 39% and reduce herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We evaluated the effect of a 1% TFV gel on genital HSV-2 infection in a mouse vaginal challenge model. In vitro plaque assays and luminex multiplex bead analysis were used, respectively, to measure(More)