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Soil warming has the potential to alter both soil and plant processes that affect carbon storage in forest ecosystems. We have quantified these effects in a large, long-term (7-y) soil-warming study in a deciduous forest in New England. Soil warming has resulted in carbon losses from the soil and stimulated carbon gains in the woody tissue of trees. The(More)
The NLRP3 inflammasome responds to microbes and danger signals by processing and activating proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. We found here that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome was restricted to interphase of the cell cycle by NEK7, a serine-threonine kinase previously linked to mitosis. Activation of the NLRP3(More)
With the wide availability of massively parallel sequencing technologies, genetic mapping has become the rate limiting step in mammalian forward genetics. Here we introduce a method for real-time identification of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea-induced mutations that cause phenotypes in mice. All mutations are identified by whole exome G1 progenitor sequencing and(More)
Detection of rare events within solid tissues by immunocytochemistry is aided by imaging thick sections. Sections of 40--100 microm thickness of paraformaldehyde-fixed solid tissue can be prepared by use of a vibrating microtome and when immunolabelled these sections can be imaged in a confocal microscope. This approach provides excellent preservation of(More)
Atmospheric inputs of N and S in bulk deposition (open collectors) and throughfall (beneath canopy collectors) were measured in and adjacent to two Class 1 wilderness areas of the northeastern US. In general, atmospheric S inputs followed our expectations with throughfall S fluxes increasing with elevation in the White Mountains, New Hampshire and(More)
Class-switch recombination (CSR) alters the Ig isotype to diversify antibody effector functions. IgD CSR is a rare event, and its regulation is poorly understood. We report that deficiency of 53BP1, a DNA damage-response protein, caused age-dependent overproduction of secreted IgD resulting from increased IgD CSR exclusively within B cells of(More)
Individual antigenic determinants on antibodies were originally described by Kunkel et al. (1). Subsequently, the determinants, termed "idiotypes" by Oudin (2), have been described in antibody populations made in response to bacterial antigens (3) and to haptens (4). The antiidiotypic antisera are usually made in homologous or even heterologous species.(More)
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