Lindsay O. Long

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Few experiments have been performed to investigate near-field egocentric distance estimation in an Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) as compared to the Real World (RW). This article investigates near-field distance estimation in IVEs and RW conditions using physical reach and verbal report measures, by using an apparatus similar to that used by Bingham(More)
Distances are regularly underestimated in immersive virtual environments (IVEs) [Witmer and Kline 1998; Loomis and Knapp 2003]. Few experiments, however, have examined the ability of calibration to overcome distortions of depth perception in IVEs. This experiment is designed to examine the effect of calibration via haptic and visual feedback on distance(More)
There is an increasing need for efficient training simulators to teach advanced laparoscopic skills beyond those imparted by a box trainer. In particular, force-based or haptic skills must be addressed in simulators, especially because a large percentage of surgical errors are caused by the over-application of force. In this work, the efficacy of a novel,(More)
BACKGROUND There is a growing need for effective surgical simulators to train the novice resident with a core skill set that can be later used in advanced operating room training. The most common simulator-based laparoscopic skills curriculum, the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS), has been demonstrated to effectively teach basic surgical skills;(More)
Though several simulators and training methods are available for basic laparoscopic skills, few have addressed force-based skills. In this work, we discuss a haptic simulator that renders virtual materials of different stiffness profiles to be used for haptic skills differentiation. A force-based task was designed on the simulator and the performance of(More)
Laparoscopic surgery demands perceptual-motor skills that are fundamentally different from open surgery, and laparoscopists must be adept at perceiving tissue interaction at the surgical site and then applying precise amounts of forces through instruments without damaging tissues. A haptic simulator that emulates multiple salient laparoscopic tasks and(More)
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of immersion on a spatial updating task in a virtual panoramic environment (VPE). A virtual panorama, such as Google Streetview, is an environment that is comprised of 3D (spherical) images taken at regular intervals in a real world setting. Participants in this experiment navigated the National Mall area(More)
In this work, we present four tasks, primarily testing haptic laparoscopic skill that can be simulated in a conventional box trainer. Results from examining expert surgeon and novice performance is presented as evidence that these tasks can be used for training haptic skills for laparoscopy in a box trainer.
We report the results of an experiment conducted to examine the effects of immersive viewing on a common spatial knowledge acquisition task of spatial updating task in a spherical panoramic environment (SPE). A spherical panoramic environment, such as Google Street View, is an environment that is comprised of spherical images captured at regular intervals(More)