Lindsay O. Long

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There is an increasing need for efficient training simulators to teach advanced laparoscopic skills beyond those imparted by a box trainer. In particular, force-based or haptic skills must be addressed in simulators, especially because a large percentage of surgical errors are caused by the over-application of force. In this work, the efficacy of a novel,(More)
BACKGROUND There is a growing need for effective surgical simulators to train the novice resident with a core skill set that can be later used in advanced operating room training. The most common simulator-based laparoscopic skills curriculum, the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Skills (FLS), has been demonstrated to effectively teach basic surgical skills;(More)
Few experiments have been performed to investigate near-field egocentric distance estimation in an Immersive Virtual Environment (IVE) as compared to the Real World (RW). This article investigates near-field distance estimation in IVEs and RW conditions using physical reach and verbal report measures, by using an apparatus similar to that used by Bingham(More)
Distances are regularly underestimated in immersive virtual environments (IVEs) [Witmer and Kline 1998; Loomis and Knapp 2003]. Few experiments, however, have examined the ability of calibration to overcome distortions of depth perception in IVEs. This experiment is designed to examine the effect of calibration via haptic and visual feedback on distance(More)
Laparoscopic surgery demands perceptual-motor skills that are fundamentally different from open surgery, and laparoscopists must be adept at perceiving tissue interaction at the surgical site and then applying precise amounts of forces through instruments without damaging tissues. A haptic simulator that emulates multiple salient laparoscopic tasks and(More)
The aim of this study was to examine if the forces applied by users of a haptic simulator could be used to distinguish expert surgeons from novices. Seven surgeons with significant operating room expertise and 9 novices with no surgical experience participated in this study. The experimental task comprised exploring 4 virtual materials with the haptic(More)
Interstate motorcoach travel has been the fastest-growing transportation mode in recent years. To identify challenges to monitoring compliance with motorcoach safety regulations and to examine factors affecting safety, four focus groups with a total of 32 participants were conducted during 2011, one with federal safety investigators, one with state motor(More)
Though several simulators and training methods are available for basic laparoscopic skills, few have addressed force-based skills. In this work, we discuss a haptic simulator that renders virtual materials of different stiffness profiles to be used for haptic skills differentiation. A force-based task was designed on the simulator and the performance of(More)
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of immersion on a spatial updating task in a virtual panoramic environment (VPE). A virtual panorama, such as Google Streetview, is an environment that is comprised of 3D (spherical) images taken at regular intervals in a real world setting. Participants in this experiment navigated the National Mall area(More)