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Siblings of individuals with autism have over 20 times the population risk of autism. Evidence of comparable, but less marked, cognitive and social communication deficits in siblings suggests a role for these traits in the search for biomarkers of familial risk. However, no neuroimaging biomarkers of familial risk have been identified to date. Here we show,(More)
The existence of an endophenotype of autism spectrum condition (ASC) has been recently suggested by several commentators. It can be estimated by finding differences between controls and people with ASC that are also present when comparing controls and the unaffected siblings of ASC individuals. In this work, we used a multivariate methodology applied on(More)
Previous theory and research in animals has identified the critical role that fetal testosterone (FT) plays in organizing sexually dimorphic brain development. However, to date there are no studies in humans directly testing the organizational effects of FT on structural brain development. In the current study we investigated the effects of FT on corpus(More)
Rightward cerebral lateralization has been suggested to be involved in the neuropathology of autism spectrum conditions. We investigated functional and neuroanatomical asymmetry, in terms of handedness and corpus callosum measurements in male adolescents with autism, their unaffected siblings and controls, and their associations with executive dysfunction(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Reduced activity during cognitively demanding tasks has been reported in the default mode network in typically developing controls and individuals with autism. However, no study has investigated the default mode network (DMN) in first-degree relatives of those with autism (such as siblings) and it is not known whether atypical(More)
Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task has been demonstrated in autism, but has not been investigated in siblings or related to measures of clinical severity. We identified atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task in participants with autism and unaffected siblings compared with control subjects in a number of temporal and frontal(More)
BACKGROUND Mentalizing deficits are a hallmark of the autism spectrum condition (ASC) and a potential endophenotype for atypical social cognition in ASC. Differences in performance and neural activation on the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' task (the Eyes task) have been identified in individuals with ASC in previous studies. METHOD Performance on the(More)
CONTEXT Obese women experience longer times to conception, even if they are young and cycling regularly, which is suggestive of alterations in ovarian function during the periconceptual period. OBJECTIVE This study sought to determine whether there are alterations in the preovulatory follicular environment that are likely to influence oocyte developmental(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine whether the high lipid content of human follicular fluid influences oocyte maturation. DESIGN Mouse oocytes as substitutes for human oocytes were exposed to follicular fluids of differing lipid content with outcome monitoring. SETTING Private infertility clinic and university laboratory. PATIENT(S) Seventy-four women seeking(More)
BACKGROUND Females and males differ significantly in the prevalence and presentation of autism spectrum conditions. One theory of this effect postulates that autistic traits lie on a sex-related continuum in the general population, and autism represents the extreme male end of this spectrum. This theory predicts that any feature of autism in males should 1)(More)