Lindsay C. Spender

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Transforming growth factor β-1 (TGF-β) acts as both a tumour suppressor and a tumour promoter in a context-dependent manner. The tumour-promoting activities of TGF-β are likely to result from a combination of Smad and non-Smad signalling pathways but remain poorly understood. Here we show that TGF-β-mediated activation of RhoA is dependent on the kinase(More)
The cytokine TGF-beta acts as a tumor suppressor in normal epithelial cells and during the early stages of tumorigenesis. During malignant progression, cancer cells can switch their response to TGF-beta and use this cytokine as a potent oncogenic factor; however, the mechanistic basis for this is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that downregulation of(More)
Two sequences required for activity of the Epstein-Barr virus BART RNA promoter in transfection assays have been identified by site-directed mutagenesis. One contains a consensus AP-1 site; the other has some similarity to Ets and Stat consensus binding sites. Candidate sequences were suggested by mapping a region of unmethylated DNA in EBV around the BART(More)
The Polo-like kinases (Plks) are a highly conserved family of protein kinases that function in regulation of cell cycle and DNA damage-induced checkpoints. Evidence of a tumor suppressor function for the Plks in human neoplasia is lacking. Here, we report that Snk/Plk2 is transcriptionally down-regulated in B-cell neoplasms. Silencing occurs with very high(More)
Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), driven by translocation and overexpression of the c-MYC gene, is an aggressive, highly proliferative lymphoma, and novel therapeutic strategies are required to overcome drug resistance following conventional treatments. The importance of the prosurvival BCL-2 family member BCL-X(L) in BL cell survival suggests that antagonistic(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulator of tissue homeostasis and can act as both a tumor suppressor and a tumor promoter. The ability to induce cell cycle arrest is a major component of the tumor suppressor function of TGF-beta. Lung, mammary, and skin epithelial cells exhibit a common minimal cytostatic program in response to(More)
RUNX transcription factors are important in development and in numerous types of human cancer. They act as either transcriptional activators or repressors and can be proto-oncogenes or tumour suppressors. Understanding their regulation and interaction may explain how RUNX factors contribute to such different and often opposing biological processes. We show(More)
To establish a persistent latent infection, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) faces a challenge in that the virus-infected host cell must transit through the germinal centre reaction. This is a site of B cell differentiation where antibody responses are optimised, and the selection criteria for B cells are stringent. The germinal centre environment is harsh, and the(More)
The effect of penciclovir and acyclovir on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) strains was determined in MRC-5 cells infected with 0.01 pfu/cell and exposed to the drugs for 72 h to allow multiple cycles of replication. Penciclovir was significantly more active than acyclovir against three strains of HSV-1 and three(More)
Cross-regulation of RUNX1 expression by RUNX3 plays a critical role in regulating proliferation of human B cells infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). When EBV infection induces RUNX3, the consequent reduction in RUNX1 levels is required for the ensuing cell proliferation because forced expression of RUNX1 in an EBV lymphoblastoid cell line prevented cell(More)