Lindi M. Wahl

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MOTIVATION Compensating alterations during the evolution of protein families give rise to coevolving positions that contain important structural and functional information. However, a high background composed of random noise and phylogenetic components interferes with the identification of coevolving positions. RESULTS We have developed a rapid, simple(More)
MOTIVATION Some functionally important protein residues are easily detected since they correspond to conserved columns in a multiple sequence alignment (MSA). However important residues may also mutate, with compensatory mutations occurring elsewhere in the protein, which serve to preserve or restore functionality. It is difficult to distinguish these(More)
Information theory was used to identify nonconserved coevolving positions in multiple sequence alignments from a variety of protein families. Coevolving positions in these alignments fall into two general categories. One set is composed of positions that coevolve with only one or two other positions. These positions often display direct amino acid(More)
1. A simulation of fast excitatory synaptic transmission at a hippocampal synapse is presented. Individual neurotransmitter molecules are followed as they diffuse through the synaptic cleft and interact with the postsynaptic receptors. The ability of the model to reproduce published results of patch-clamp experiments on CA3 pyramidal cells is illustrated;(More)
Bone remodeling occurs asynchronously at multiple sites in the adult skeleton and involves resorption by osteoclasts, followed by formation of new bone by osteoblasts. Disruptions in bone remodeling contribute to the pathogenesis of disorders such as osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and Paget's disease. Interactions among cells of osteoblast and osteoclast(More)
The basic reproductive ratio, R0, is defined as the expected number of secondary infections arising from a single individual during his or her entire infectious period, in a population of susceptibles. This concept is fundamental to the study of epidemiology and within-host pathogen dynamics. Most importantly, R0 often serves as a threshold parameter that(More)
UNLABELLED 18F-FDG PET is increasingly being used to monitor the early response of malignant tumors to chemotherapy. Understanding the reproducibility of standardized uptake values (SUVs) is an important prerequisite in estimating what constitutes a significant change. METHODS Twenty-six patients were studied on 2 separate occasions (mean interval +/- SD,(More)
The fixation probability, the probability that the frequency of a particular allele in a population will ultimately reach unity, is one of the cornerstones of population genetics. In this review, we give a brief historical overview of mathematical approaches used to estimate the fixation probability of beneficial alleles. We then focus on more recent work(More)
To understand the role of the immune system in limiting HIV type 1 replication, it is critical to know to what extent the rapid turnover of productively infected cells is caused by viral cytopathicity or by immune-mediated lysis. We show that uncultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells of many patients contain cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) that lyse(More)
We present a general model for the Prisoner's Dilemma in which variable degrees of cooperation are possible, and payoffs are scaled accordingly. We describe a continuous strategy space, and divide this space into strategy families. We derive the payoff function for these families analytically, and study the evolutionary outcome when a wide range of(More)