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The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinase pathways are triggered upon ligation of the antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR). During the development of T cells in the thymus, the ERK pathway is required for differentiation of CD4(-)CD8(-) into CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes,(More)
Interleukin (IL)-6 is produced by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has been previously shown that APC-derived IL-6 promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into effector T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we have studied the molecular mechanism for IL-6-mediated Th2 differentiation.(More)
1. The effects of normal rabbit serum and of rabbit antiserum to whole foetal mouse tissues, on the isolated limb bones of late foetal mice were studied in organ culture, and the influence of hydrocortisone on these effects was investigated. 2. Unheated normal serum caused slight loss of metachromatic material from the cartilage matrix, and some resorption(More)
The activity, protein concentration and catalytic efficiency of hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was determined in rats aged 1 to 199 days. Microsomal enzyme total activity peaked on day 24, during weaning, and again on day 63, during the onset of puberty. Increased enzyme activity during weaning resulted primarily from an increase in(More)
We hypothesized that amplification or overexpression of HER-2 (c-erbB-2), the Ki-67 antigen (Mib1), cyclin D-1 (CD1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), or the transforming growth factor beta II receptor, (TGFbetaRII), would predict relapse in women with early stage, estrogen (ER) and/or progesterone receptor (PR) positive breast cancer treated with tamoxifen.(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs) are a group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that participate in signal transduction events mediating specific cellular functions. Activation of JNK is regulated by phosphorylation in response to cellular stress and inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that JNK is regulated by a second, novel(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is induced by cytokines and stress stimuli and is implicated in cell death and differentiation, but the specific function of this pathway depends on the cell type. Here we examined the role of JNK1 and JNK2 in CD8(+) T cells. Unlike CD4(+) T cells, the absence of JNK2 causes increased interleukin(More)
The c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is induced by cytokines and stress stimuli and is implicated in cell death and differentiation, but the specific function of this pathway depends on the cell type. Here we examined the role of JNK1 and JNK2 in CD8 T cells. Unlike CD4 T cells, the absence of JNK2 causes increased interleukin (IL)-2(More)
It has been shown that serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 are elevated in patients with various types of cancer. However, the exact source of IL-6 in these patients and its role in tumor progression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the autocrine production of IL-6 by tumor cells promotes resistance of the cells to chemotherapy, a novel function of(More)
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