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Interleukin (IL)-6 is produced by professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. It has been previously shown that APC-derived IL-6 promotes the differentiation of naive CD4+ T cells into effector T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Here, we have studied the molecular mechanism for IL-6-mediated Th2 differentiation.(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinases (JNKs) are a group of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that participate in signal transduction events mediating specific cellular functions. Activation of JNK is regulated by phosphorylation in response to cellular stress and inflammatory cytokines. Here, we demonstrate that JNK is regulated by a second, novel(More)
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 MAP kinase pathways are triggered upon ligation of the antigen-specific T cell receptor (TCR). During the development of T cells in the thymus, the ERK pathway is required for differentiation of CD4(-)CD8(-) into CD4(+)CD8(+) double positive (DP) thymocytes,(More)
The c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathway is induced by cytokines and stress stimuli and is implicated in cell death and differentiation, but the specific function of this pathway depends on the cell type. Here we examined the role of JNK1 and JNK2 in CD8(+) T cells. Unlike CD4(+) T cells, the absence of JNK2 causes increased interleukin(More)
It has been shown that serum levels of interleukin (IL)-6 are elevated in patients with various types of cancer. However, the exact source of IL-6 in these patients and its role in tumor progression remain unclear. Here we demonstrate that the autocrine production of IL-6 by tumor cells promotes resistance of the cells to chemotherapy, a novel function of(More)
A small number of p185c-neu receptors have been found on PC12 cells. These receptors show some basal phosphorylation in quiescent cells. When the cells are treated with nerve growth factor (NGF) for a short time, some increase in phosphorylation is seen, mainly on serine and threonine residues, and this is accompanied by a slight shift in the apparent(More)
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