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We used massively parallel sequencing to compare the microRNA (miRNA) content of human and chimpanzee brains, and we identified 447 new miRNA genes. Many of the new miRNAs are not conserved beyond primates, indicating their recent origin, and some miRNAs seem species specific, whereas others are expanded in one species through duplication events. These data(More)
Defined growth conditions are essential for many applications of human embryonic stem cells (hESC). Most defined media are presently used in combination with Matrigel, a partially defined extracellular matrix (ECM) extract from mouse sarcoma. Here, we defined ECM requirements of hESC by analyzing integrin expression and ECM production and determined(More)
MicroRNAs are 20- to 23-nucleotide RNA molecules that can regulate gene expression. Currently > 400 microRNAs have been experimentally identified in mammalian genomes, whereas estimates go up to 1000 and beyond. Here we show that many more mammalian microRNAs exist. We discovered novel microRNA candidates using two approaches: testing of computationally(More)
BACKGROUND Chronic heart failure is characterized by left ventricular remodeling and reactivation of a fetal gene program; the underlying mechanisms are only partly understood. Here we provide evidence that cardiac microRNAs, recently discovered key regulators of gene expression, contribute to the transcriptional changes observed in heart failure. METHODS(More)
BACKGROUND Endoglin, an accessory receptor for transforming growth factor-beta in vascular endothelial cells, is essential for angiogenesis during mouse development. Mutations in the human gene cause hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia type 1 (HHT1), a disease characterized by vascular malformations that increase with age. Although haploinsufficiency is(More)
Acute myocardial infarction (MI) involves necrotic and apoptotic loss of cardiomyocytes. One strategy to salvage ischemic cardiomyocytes is to modulate gene expression to promote cell survival without disturbing normal cardiac function. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as powerful regulators of multiple cellular processes, including apoptosis, suggesting(More)
The adult mammalian heart has limited regenerative capacity and was generally considered to contain no dividing cells. Recently, however, a resident population of progenitor cells has been identified, which could represent a new source of cardiomyocytes. Here, we describe the efficient isolation and propagation of human cardiomyocyte progenitor cells(More)
Cell transplantation may restore heart function in disease associated with loss or dysfunction of cardiomyocytes. Recently, Laflamme et al reported an improvement in cardiac function in immunodeficient rats 4 weeks after coronary artery ligation and injection of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs). We have recently carried out a(More)
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the leading cause of death and disability worldwide. Despite current therapy, the morbidity and mortality for patients with CHD remains significant. The most important manifestations of CHD arise from acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in terms of cardiomyocyte death and its long-term consequences. As such,(More)
The potential usefulness of human embryonic stem cells for therapy derives from their ability to form any cell in the body. This potential has been used to justify intensive research despite some ethical concerns. In parallel, scientists have searched for adult stem cells that can be used as an alternative to embryonic cells, and, for the heart at least,(More)