Linda Stern Lang

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The long term effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on the cognitive development of the child are not well understood due to conflicting findings in past research. The aim of this paper was to provide an up to date, critical review of the literature to determine whether there is evidence of a relationship between tobacco smoke exposure in utero and(More)
OBJECTIVES Air pollution is associated with increased risk of respiratory, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease, but its association with cognitive functioning and impairment is unclear. The aim of this systematic review was to examine whether a relationship exists between these variables across the life course. METHODS We searched Web of Knowledge,(More)
OBJECTIVES Detection of dementia is essential for improving the lives of patients but the extent of underdetection worldwide and its causes are not known. This study aimed to quantify the prevalence of undetected dementia and to examine its correlates. METHODS/SETTING/PARTICIPANTS A systematic search was conducted until October 2016 for studies reporting(More)
Olopatadine (AL-4943A; KW-4679) [(z)-11-[3-(dimethylamino)propylidene]-6, 11-dihydrodibenz[b,e]oxepine-2 acetic acid hydrochloride] is an anti-allergic agent which inhibits mast cell mediator release and possesses histamine H1 receptor antagonist activity. Studies were conducted to characterize the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of this drug(More)
Choroidal mast cells have been implicated in experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU), an ocular inflammatory disease induced by S-antigen. Our data confirm that choroidal mast cell numbers decrease with clinical onset of S-antigen-induced EAU in Lewis rats, and establish that the decrease is statistically significant. In addition, we find that the numbers of(More)
Leflunomide (LEF) is a novel immunomodulator which has been reported to be efficacious in experimental models of systemic autoimmune diseases and in treating rheumatoid arthritis in man. Leflunomide's ability to ameliorate ocular disease processes was investigated in a model of autoimmune eye disease, experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU). EAU was induced(More)
The production of cytokines by human conjunctival epithelial cells following stimulation was investigated. Primary cultures of human conjunctival epithelial cells were characterized by morphology and keratin expression. Cultured epithelial cells were treated with varying concentrations of lipopolysaccharide, interleukin (IL)-1 beta, calcium ionophore(More)
The soluble C-type lectin surfactant protein (SP)-A mediates lung immune responses partially via its direct effects on alveolar macrophages (AM), the main resident leukocytes exposed to antigens. SP-A modulates the AM threshold of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activity towards an anti-inflammatory phenotype both in vitro and in vivo through various mechanisms.(More)
PURPOSE Despite the known association of second hand smoke (SHS) with increased risk of ill health and mortality, the effects of SHS exposure on cognitive functioning in children and adolescents are unclear. Through a critical review of the literature we sought to determine whether a relationship exists between these variables. METHODS The authors(More)
The antiallergic compound, lodoxamide, was evaluated for its abilities to attenuate a local allergic reaction in rat conjunctiva in vivo and to inhibit rat conjunctival mast cell mediator release in vitro. Topically applied lodoxamide (0.01, 0.10 and 1.0%, w/v) dose-dependently reduced the allergic response (23, 43 and 72%, respectively) in vivo. Lodoxamide(More)