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The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
Insertions of parasitic DNA within coding sequences are usually deleterious and are generally counter-selected during evolution. Thanks to nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide unique models to study the fate of such insertions. Their germline genome undergoes extensive rearrangements during development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline(More)
Ciliates, although single-celled organisms, contain numerous subcellular structures and pathways usually associated with metazoans. How this cell biological complexity relates to the evolution of molecular elements is unclear, because features in these cells have been defined mainly at the morphological level. Among these ciliate features are structures(More)
Ciliates are the only unicellular eukaryotes known to separate germinal and somatic functions. Diploid but silent micronuclei transmit the genetic information to the next sexual generation. Polyploid macronuclei express the genetic information from a streamlined version of the genome but are replaced at each sexual generation. The macronuclear genome of(More)
Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by non-coding introns that must be accurately removed from pre-messenger RNAs to produce translatable mRNAs. Splicing is guided locally by short conserved sequences, but genes typically contain many potential splice sites, and the mechanisms specifying the correct sites remain poorly understood. In most organisms, short(More)
A consortium of laboratories undertook a pilot sequencing project to gain insight into the genome of Paramecium. Plasmid-end sequencing of DNA fragments from the somatic nucleus together with similarity searches identified 722 potential protein-coding genes. High gene density and uniform small intron size make random sequencing of somatic chromosomes a(More)
The architecturally complex secretory granules of Paramecium, known as trichocysts, have two unusual and seemingly contradictory features: their protein contents have crystalline organization (Sperling, L., Tardieu, A., and Gulik-Krzywicki, T. (1987) J. Cell Biol. 105, 1649-1662), yet these proteins are a heterogeneous set of molecules encoded by a large(More)
BACKGROUND The genome of Paramecium tetraurelia, a unicellular model that belongs to the ciliate phylum, has been shaped by at least 3 successive whole genome duplications (WGD). These dramatic events, which have also been documented in plants, animals and fungi, are resolved over evolutionary time by the loss of one duplicate for the majority of genes.(More)
The Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) initiative provides species-agnostic data models and software tools for representing curated model organism data. Here we describe GMODWeb, a GMOD project designed to speed the development of model organism database (MOD) websites. Sites created with GMODWeb provide integration with other GMOD tools and allow users(More)
A review of fossil mammalian faunas from the Middle Awash indicates they span most of the later Neogene and document evolutionary change in several mammalian groups, especially Primates, Proboscidea and Artiodactyla. Oldowan artefacts first appear in the late Pliocene, while Acheulian and later industries and apparent occupation sites occur in Pleistocene(More)