Learn More
The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
Insertions of parasitic DNA within coding sequences are usually deleterious and are generally counter-selected during evolution. Thanks to nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide unique models to study the fate of such insertions. Their germline genome undergoes extensive rearrangements during development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline(More)
Ciliates, although single-celled organisms, contain numerous subcellular structures and pathways usually associated with metazoans. How this cell biological complexity relates to the evolution of molecular elements is unclear, because features in these cells have been defined mainly at the morphological level. Among these ciliate features are structures(More)
Ciliates are the only unicellular eukaryotes known to separate germinal and somatic functions. Diploid but silent micronuclei transmit the genetic information to the next sexual generation. Polyploid macronuclei express the genetic information from a streamlined version of the genome but are replaced at each sexual generation. The macronuclear genome of(More)
Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by non-coding introns that must be accurately removed from pre-messenger RNAs to produce translatable mRNAs. Splicing is guided locally by short conserved sequences, but genes typically contain many potential splice sites, and the mechanisms specifying the correct sites remain poorly understood. In most organisms, short(More)
A consortium of laboratories undertook a pilot sequencing project to gain insight into the genome of Paramecium. Plasmid-end sequencing of DNA fragments from the somatic nucleus together with similarity searches identified 722 potential protein-coding genes. High gene density and uniform small intron size make random sequencing of somatic chromosomes a(More)
BioMart Central Portal is a first of its kind, community-driven effort to provide unified access to dozens of biological databases spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. Anybody can contribute an independently maintained resource to the Central Portal, allowing it to be exposed to and shared with the(More)
Paramecium is a unicell in which cellular processes are amenable to genetic dissection. Regulated secretion, which designates a secretory pathway where secretory products are first stored in intracellular granules and then released by exocytotic membrane fusion upon external trigger, is an important function in Paramecium, involved in defensive response(More)
Paramecium trichocysts are unusual secretory organelles in that: (a) their crystalline contents are built up from a family of low molecular mass acidic proteins; (b) they have a precise, genetically determined shape; and (c) the crystalline trichocyst contents expand rapidly upon exocytosis to give a second, extracellular form which is also an ordered(More)