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The duplication of entire genomes has long been recognized as having great potential for evolutionary novelties, but the mechanisms underlying their resolution through gene loss are poorly understood. Here we show that in the unicellular eukaryote Paramecium tetraurelia, a ciliate, most of the nearly 40,000 genes arose through at least three successive(More)
Insertions of parasitic DNA within coding sequences are usually deleterious and are generally counter-selected during evolution. Thanks to nuclear dimorphism, ciliates provide unique models to study the fate of such insertions. Their germline genome undergoes extensive rearrangements during development of a new somatic macronucleus from the germline(More)
Ciliates, although single-celled organisms, contain numerous subcellular structures and pathways usually associated with metazoans. How this cell biological complexity relates to the evolution of molecular elements is unclear, because features in these cells have been defined mainly at the morphological level. Among these ciliate features are structures(More)
Paramecium trichocysts are unusual secretory organelles in that: (a) their crystalline contents are built up from a family of low molecular mass acidic proteins; (b) they have a precise, genetically determined shape; and (c) the crystalline trichocyst contents expand rapidly upon exocytosis to give a second, extracellular form which is also an ordered(More)
The Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) initiative provides species-agnostic data models and software tools for representing curated model organism data. Here we describe GMODWeb, a GMOD project designed to speed the development of model organism database (MOD) websites. Sites created with GMODWeb provide integration with other GMOD tools and allow users(More)
Microinjection at high copy number of plasmids containing only the coding region of a gene into the Paramecium somatic macronucleus led to a marked reduction in the expression of the corresponding endogenous gene(s). The silencing effect, which is stably maintained throughout vegetative growth, has been observed for all Paramecium genes examined so far: a(More)
BioMart Central Portal is a first of its kind, community-driven effort to provide unified access to dozens of biological databases spanning genomics, proteomics, model organisms, cancer data, ontology information and more. Anybody can contribute an independently maintained resource to the Central Portal, allowing it to be exposed to and shared with the(More)
Ciliopathies, pleiotropic diseases provoked by defects in the structure or function of cilia or flagella, reflect the multiple roles of cilia during development, in stem cells, in somatic organs and germ cells. High throughput studies have revealed several hundred proteins that are involved in the composition, function or biogenesis of cilia. The(More)
Most eukaryotic genes are interrupted by non-coding introns that must be accurately removed from pre-messenger RNAs to produce translatable mRNAs. Splicing is guided locally by short conserved sequences, but genes typically contain many potential splice sites, and the mechanisms specifying the correct sites remain poorly understood. In most organisms, short(More)
Paramecium, like other ciliates, remodels its entire germline genome at each sexual generation to produce a somatic genome stripped of transposons and other multicopy elements. The germline chromosomes are fragmented by a DNA elimination process that targets heterochromatin to give a reproducible set of some 200 linear molecules 50 kb to 1 Mb in size. These(More)