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Growth factors and mitogens use the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade to transmit signals from their receptors to regulate gene expression and prevent apoptosis. Some components of these pathways are mutated or aberrantly expressed in human cancer (e.g., Ras, B-Raf). Mutations also occur at genes encoding upstream receptors (e.g., EGFR and Flt-3) and(More)
The PI3K/Akt signal transduction cascade has been investigated extensively for its roles in oncogenic transformation. Initial studies implicated both PI3K and Akt in prevention of apoptosis. However, more recent evidence has also associated this pathway with regulation of cell cycle progression. Uncovering the signaling network spanning from extracellular(More)
The roles of the JAK/STAT, Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways and the BCR-ABL oncoprotein in leukemogenesis and their importance in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis are discussed in this review. These pathways have evolved regulatory proteins, which serve to limit their proliferative and antiapoptotic effects. Small(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Integral components of these pathways, Ras, B-Raf, PI3K, and PTEN are also activated/inactivated by mutations. These pathways have profound effects on proliferative, apoptotic and(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction pathway regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis in diverse types of cells. Mutations in this pathway are often observed in transformed cell lines and frequently linked with human cancers. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can induce events both associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. The particular(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFRs) and signaling pathways activated by these receptors have been associated with development of breast cancer as well as its resistance to treatment with cytotoxic drugs. This review describes the current understanding of EGFRs and their downstream signaling pathways. Emphasis is placed upon Raf/MEK/ERK and(More)
BACKGROUND The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN)/v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is central in the transmission of growth regulatory signals originating from cell surface receptors. OBJECTIVE This review discusses how mutations occur that result in(More)
Mutations and chromosomal translocations occur in leukemic cells that result in elevated expression or constitutive activation of various growth factor receptors and downstream kinases. The Raf/MEK/ERK, PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR and Jak/STAT pathways are often activated by mutations in upstream genes. The Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR pathways are regulated(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT signaling cascades play critical roles in the transmission of signals from growth factor receptors to regulate gene expression and prevent apoptosis. Components of these pathways are mutated or aberrantly expressed in human cancer (e.g., Ras, B-Raf, PI3K, PTEN, Akt). Also, mutations occur at genes encoding upstream(More)
The development of androgen-independent growth in advanced carcinoma of the prostate (CaP) is associated with poor prognosis and few therapeutic options. Chemotherapeutic drugs offer the afflicted patient palliative benefits, but these are short-lived because of the chemoresistant nature of hormone-refractory prostate cancer. Given the high percentage of(More)