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The PI3K/Akt signal transduction cascade has been investigated extensively for its roles in oncogenic transformation. Initial studies implicated both PI3K and Akt in prevention of apoptosis. However, more recent evidence has also associated this pathway with regulation of cell cycle progression. Uncovering the signaling network spanning from extracellular(More)
Growth factors and mitogens use the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signaling cascade to transmit signals from their receptors to regulate gene expression and prevent apoptosis. Some components of these pathways are mutated or aberrantly expressed in human cancer (e.g., Ras, B-Raf). Mutations also occur at genes encoding upstream receptors (e.g., EGFR and Flt-3) and(More)
The roles of the JAK/STAT, Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signal transduction pathways and the BCR-ABL oncoprotein in leukemogenesis and their importance in the regulation of cell cycle progression and apoptosis are discussed in this review. These pathways have evolved regulatory proteins, which serve to limit their proliferative and antiapoptotic effects. Small(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK signal transduction pathway regulates cell cycle progression and apoptosis in diverse types of cells. Mutations in this pathway are often observed in transformed cell lines and frequently linked with human cancers. The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway can induce events both associated with cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest. The particular(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Integral components of these pathways, Ras, B-Raf, PI3K, and PTEN are also activated/inactivated by mutations. These pathways have profound effects on proliferative, apoptotic and(More)
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors (EGFRs) and signaling pathways activated by these receptors have been associated with development of breast cancer as well as its resistance to treatment with cytotoxic drugs. This review describes the current understanding of EGFRs and their downstream signaling pathways. Emphasis is placed upon Raf/MEK/ERK and(More)
The serine/threonine kinase glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) was initially identified and studied in the regulation of glycogen synthesis. GSK-3 functions in a wide range of cellular processes. Aberrant activity of GSK-3 has been implicated in many human pathologies including: bipolar depression, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, cancer,(More)
Overexpression of Bcl-2 plays a role in the development of drug resistance in leukemia and other apoptosis-prone tumors. Raf isoforms areserine/threonine kinases that act as signal transducers in cascades initiated by many growth factors and mitogens. Raf isoform activation has been linked to drug resistance in leukemia. In this study we investigated(More)
The Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is often implicated in sensitivity and resistance to leukemia therapy. Dysregulated signaling through the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK pathway is often the result of genetic alterations in critical components in this pathway as well as mutations at upstream growth(More)
The Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/Akt/mTOR cascades are often activated by genetic alterations in upstream signaling molecules such as receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK). Certain components of these pathways, RAS, NF1, BRAF, MEK1, DUSP5, PP2A, PIK3CA, PIK3R1, PIK3R4, PIK3R5, IRS4, AKT, NFKB1, MTOR, PTEN, TSC1, and TSC2 may also be activated/inactivated by(More)