Linda R. Ward

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Since 1989, strains of Salmonella typhi resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim (i.e., multidrug-resistant [MDR] strains) have been responsible for numerous outbreaks in countries in the Indian subcontinent, Southeast Asia, and Africa. MDR strains have also been isolated with increasing frequency from immigrant workers in countries in the(More)
In 1999, 23% of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi isolates from patients in the United Kingdom exhibited decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC 0.25-1.0 mg/L); more than half were also resistant to chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim. Increasing numbers of treatment failures have been noted. Most infections have been in patients with a(More)
The increasing availability of bagged prepared salad vegetables reflects consumer demand for fresh, healthy, convenient, and additive-free foods that are safe and nutritious. During May and June 2001 a study of retail bagged prepared ready-to-eat salad vegetables was undertaken to determine the microbiological quality of these vegetables. Examination of the(More)
A LightCycler-based PCR-hybridization gyrA mutation assay (GAMA) was developed to rapidly detect gyrA point mutations in multiresistant (MR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (MIC, 0.25 to 1.0 mg/liter). Ninety-two isolates (49 human, 43 animal) were tested with three individual oligonucleotide(More)
Between 1992 and 1999, 1426 foodborne general outbreaks of infectious intestinal disease (IID) were reported to the Public Health Laboratory Service Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. A fifth were associated with the consumption of poultry. Chicken was implicated in almost three quarters of these outbreaks, turkey in over a fifth and duck in 2% of(More)
The incidence of multiple drug resistance (to four or more antimicrobials) in salmonellas from humans in England and Wales in 1996 has been compared with corresponding data for 1994. For Salmonella enteritidis multiple resistance has remained rare, although a high proportion of isolates of phage type 6A have shown resistance to ampicillin. For S.(More)