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Discrimination of 2 German vowel contrasts was examined in English-learning infants of 6-8 and 10-12 months of age using a head turn procedure. The younger infants were better able than the older infants to discriminate the nonnative contrasts, but performance at 6-8 months was below levels that have been reported for nonnative consonant contrasts. A 2nd(More)
  • L Polka
  • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
  • 1991
Cross-language studies have shown that foreign consonant contrasts vary in the degree of perceptual difficulty which they present adult non-native listeners. Phonemic, phonetic, and acoustic factors have been considered important in accounting for this variability. These factors were examined by comparing English listeners' perception of the Hindi retroflex(More)
Previous studies have shown that infants perceptually differentiate certain non-native contrasts at 6–8 months but not at 10–12 months of age, whereas differentiation is evident at both ages in infants for whom the test contrasts are native. These findings reveal a language-specific bias to be emerging during the first year of life. A developmental decline(More)
Asymmetries in vowel perception occur such that discrimination of a vowel change presented in one direction is easier compared to the same change presented in the reverse direction. Although such effects have been repeatedly reported in the literature there has been little effort to explain when or why they occur. We review studies that report asymmetries(More)
OBJECTIVES The primary goal of this study was to evaluate alternative tympanometric parameters for distinguishing normal middle ears from ears with otosclerosis. A secondary goal was to provide guidelines and normative data for interpreting multifrequency tympanometry obtained using the Virtual 310 immittance system. DESIGN Nine tympanometric measures(More)
OBJECTIVE The major goal of this study was to examine differences in the middle ear mechano-acoustical properties of normal ears and ears with surgically confirmed otosclerosis using conventional and multifrequency tympanometry (MFT) as well as energy reflectance (ER). Second, we sought to compare ER, standard tympanometry, and MFT in their ability to(More)
Perceptual reorganisation of infants' speech perception has been found from 6 months for consonants and earlier for vowels. Recently, similar reorganisation has been found for lexical tone between 6 and 9 months of age. Given that there is a close relationship between vowels and tones, this study investigates whether the perceptual reorganisation for tone(More)
The goal of this paper is to provide an overview of an emerging new framework for understanding early phonetic development – The Natural Referent Vowel (NRV) framework. The initial support for this framework was the finding that directional asymmetries occur often in infant vowel discrimination. The asymmetries point to an underlying perceptual bias(More)
This article describes the results of two experiments. Experiment 1 was a cross-sectional study designed to explore developmental and cross-linguistic variation in the vowel space of 10- to 18-month-old infants, exposed to either Canadian English or Canadian French. Acoustic parameters of the infant vowel space were described (specifically the mean and(More)
Studies of cross-language consonant discrimination have shown a shift from a language-general to a language-specific pattern during the first year of life. Recently, the same pattern of change was observed for English-speaking infants' discrimination of two non-native vowel contrasts (Polka and Werker, 1994). The present study was designed to provide a more(More)