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Discrimination of 2 German vowel contrasts was examined in English-learning infants of 6-8 and 10-12 months of age using a head turn procedure. The younger infants were better able than the older infants to discriminate the nonnative contrasts, but performance at 6-8 months was below levels that have been reported for nonnative consonant contrasts. A 2nd(More)
Studies of cross-language consonant discrimination have shown a shift from a language-general to a language-specific pattern during the first year of life. Recently, the same pattern of change was observed for English-speaking infants' discrimination of two non-native vowel contrasts (Polka and Werker, 1994). The present study was designed to provide a more(More)
Previous studies have shown that infants perceptually differentiate certain non-native contrasts at 6–8 months but not at 10–12 months of age, whereas differentiation is evident at both ages in infants for whom the test contrasts are native. These findings reveal a language-specific bias to be emerging during the first year of life. A developmental decline(More)
  • L Polka
  • 1991
Cross-language studies have shown that foreign consonant contrasts vary in the degree of perceptual difficulty which they present adult non-native listeners. Phonemic, phonetic, and acoustic factors have been considered important in accounting for this variability. These factors were examined by comparing English listeners' perception of the Hindi retroflex(More)
Asymmetries in vowel perception occur such that discrimination of a vowel change presented in one direction is easier compared to the same change presented in the reverse direction. Although such effects have been repeatedly reported in the literature there has been little effort to explain when or why they occur. We review studies that report asymmetries(More)
To trace how age and language experience shape the discrimination of native and non-native phonetic contrasts, we compared 4-year-olds learning either English or French or both and simultaneous bilingual adults on their ability to discriminate the English /d-th/ contrast. Findings show that the ability to discriminate the native English contrast improved(More)
OBJECTIVES The primary goal of this study was to evaluate alternative tympanometric parameters for distinguishing normal middle ears from ears with otosclerosis. A secondary goal was to provide guidelines and normative data for interpreting multifrequency tympanometry obtained using the Virtual 310 immittance system. DESIGN Nine tympanometric measures(More)
The perceptual effects of orthogonal variations in two acoustic parameters which differentiate American English prevocalic /r/ and /l/ were examined. A spectral cue (frequency onset and transition of F2 and F3) and a temporal cue (relative duration of initial steady state and transition of F1) were varied in synthetic versions of "rock" and "lock." Four(More)
Word segmentation skills emerge during infancy, but it is unclear to what extent this ability is shaped by experience listening to a specific language or language type. This issue was explored by comparing segmentation of bi-syllabic words in monolingual and bilingual 7.5-month-old learners of French and English. In a native-language condition, monolingual(More)