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BACKGROUND Area socioeconomic deprivation indices are widely used to monitor health disparities in Europe. However, such indices have not been used in cancer surveillance in the United States. We developed an area socioeconomic index to examine area socioeconomic patterns in all-cancer mortality among U.S. men between 1950 and 1998. METHODS Principal(More)
The power of human vision to synthesize information and recognize pattern is fundamental to the success of visualization as a scientific method. This same power can mislead investigators who use visualization to explore georeferenced data-if data reliability is not addressed directly in the visualization process. Here, we apply an integrated(More)
Geographic Visualization, sometimes called cartographic visu-alization, is a form of information visualization in which principles from cartography, geographic information systems (GIS), Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA), and information visual-ization more generally are integrated in the development and assessment of visual methods that facilitate the(More)
BACKGROUND This article describes geographic bias in GIS analyses with unrepresentative data owing to missing geocodes, using as an example a spatial analysis of prostate cancer incidence among whites and African Americans in Virginia, 1990-1999. Statistical tests for clustering were performed and such clusters mapped. The patterns of missing census tract(More)
Maps of morbidity or mortality rates, whether considered individually or as a layer in a geographic information system application, invite multiple comparisons of area rates. However, comparisons of rates across different populations require standardization of the age-specific rates to account for differences in population age structures. The indirect(More)
BACKGROUND To communicate population-based cancer statistics, cancer researchers have a long tradition of presenting data in a spatial representation, or map. Historically, health data were presented in printed atlases in which the map producer selected the content and format. The availability of geographic information systems (GIS) with comprehensive(More)
Our research goal was to determine which choropleth classification methods are most suitable for epidemiological rate maps. We compared seven methods using responses by fifty-six subjects in a two-part experiment involving nine series of U.S. mortality maps. Subjects answered a wide range of general map-reading questions that involved individual maps and(More)
An implementation of an interactive parallel coordinate plot linked with the ArcView ® geographic information system (GIS) is presented. The integrated geographic visualization system was created for the exploratory analysis of mortality data from specific cancers as they relate, specifically spatially, to other mortality causes and to demographic and(More)
BACKGROUND Past studies of associations between measures of the built environment, particularly street connectivity, and active transportation (AT) or leisure walking/bicycling have largely failed to account for spatial autocorrelation of connectivity variables and have seldom examined both the propensity for AT and its duration in a coherent fashion. Such(More)