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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect on verbal language development of purposefully encouraging hearing infants to use simple gestures as symbols for objects, requests, and conditions. To this end, 103, 11-month-old infants were divided into three groups, all of whom were seen in the laboratory for a variety of assessments, including(More)
2 studies are presented that document the spontaneous development by normal infants of nonverbal gestures to symbolically represent objects, needs, states, and qualities. These symbolic gestures are shown to be a typical rather than rare phenomenon of early development and to function in ways similar to early verbal symbols. Indeed, the case is made that(More)
Researchers have hypothesized in the past that children learning sign languages develop signs at an earlier age than is typically expected for vocal words. This assumption, however, has recently been questioned on the grounds that researchers have not always guaranteed that words and gestures are being used in a comparable fashion. The present study was(More)
The ability of 3-, 4-, and 5-year-old children to infer the position of an object in a room from information contained on a map was assessed under 5 conditions: (a) map aligned inside the room (the pretest); (b) map aligned outside the room; (c) map rotated 180° inside the room; (d) map rotated 180° outside the room; and (e) map held vertically outside the(More)
The impact of the hierarchical organization of a space on judgments of direction and distance was assessed in two studies using two-dimensional models analogous to those used by A. Stevens and P. Coupe (1978, Cognitive Psychology, 10, 422-437). In each study the models contained two stars and were divided into two parts by a curved boundary line. In the(More)
In two longitudinal studies, infants were trained at 12 and 18 months to find an object hidden in one of two identical wells in a Plexiglas box. On the test trial, normal access was blocked and infants were either guided by their mother or allowed to move on their own to another opening on the opposite side. In Experiment 1 significantly more correct(More)
The effect of active exploration upon memory for spatial location of an event was assessed for children at 2 age levels. Each child took a walk through the same unfamiliar hallway in search of a hidden object which he was later asked to relocate. Half the children were accompanied by an adult holding their hand (passive condition), while the other half(More)
  • D K K Upadhyaya, Giles, +59 authors A Harrison
  • 2014
written and oral presentation of results will be stressed. (Same course as Ecology/Entomology 225.)—III. (III.) Karban 231. Mathematical Methods in Population Biology (3) Lecture—3 hours. Prerequisite: Mathematics 16C or 21C or the equivalent. Mathematical methods used in population biology. Linear and nonlinear difference equation and differential equation(More)
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