Linda M Lord

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Routine transpyloric placement of feeding tubes reduces aspiration in intensive care unit patients. Spontaneous passage eliminates the need for radiologic or endoscopic intervention. It is unclear whether the addition of a weight to the end of the tube or the use of the prokinetic agent metoclopramide in the conventional dose (10 mg) improves spontaneous(More)
Extensive resection of the small bowel results in impaired digestion of macronutrients and malabsorption of nutrients, fluid, electrolytes, and minerals. Gastric acid hypersecretion and alterations in gut hormonal response further contribute to the problem. Diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte and acid/base abnormalities, and macronutrient and micronutrient(More)
When the mode of nutrition support therapy is decided, it is generally accepted that the gastrointestinal (enteral) route be considered before the intravenous (parenteral) route. Currently, there are a plethora of enteral devices available and as many techniques for device insertion. This article will help the health care practitioner differentiate among(More)
The gastrointestinal tract is a major immunologic organ that must be maximally supported during critical illness. Gastrointestinal tissues require direct contact with nutrients to support their own rapid cellular turnover rate and carry out the multitude of metabolic and immunologic functions needed for successful adaptation to stress. Disruption in the(More)
Aspiration is defi ned as the inhalation of material into the airway. Microaspiration occurs frequently. This is aspiration of small amounts, less than 1 mL, that usually have no clinical signifi cance because most of the material is cleared by the mucociliary action of the tracheobronchial tree or coughing. It becomes signifi cant when the volume of(More)