Linda M. Kampschreur

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A review was performed to determine clinical aspects and diagnostic tools for chronic Q fever. We present a Dutch guideline based on literature and clinical experience with chronic Q fever patients in The Netherlands so far. In this guideline diagnosis is categorized as proven, possible or probable chronic infection based on serology, PCR, clinical(More)
Since 2007, the Netherlands has experienced a large Q fever outbreak. To identify and quantify risk factors for development of chronic Q fever after Coxiella burnetii infection, we performed a case-control study. Comorbidity, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, and demographic characteristics from 105 patients with proven (n = 44), probable (n = 28),(More)
Coxiella burnetii causes Q fever, a zoonosis, which has acute and chronic manifestations. From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced a large Q fever outbreak, which has offered a unique opportunity to analyze chronic Q fever cases. In an observational cohort study, baseline characteristics and clinical characteristics, as well as mortality, of patients(More)
From 2007 to 2009, the Netherlands faced large seasonal outbreaks of Q fever, in which infected dairy goat farms were identified as the primary sources. Veterinary measures including vaccination of goats and sheep and culling of pregnant animals on infected farms seem to have brought the Q fever problem under control. However, the epidemic is expected to(More)
The Netherlands experienced an unprecedented outbreak of Q fever between 2007 and 2010. The Jeroen Bosch Hospital (JBH) in 's-Hertogenbosch is located in the centre of the epidemic area. Based on Q fever screening programmes, seroprevalence of IgG phase II antibodies to Coxiella burnetii in the JBH catchment area was 10·7% [785 tested, 84 seropositive, 95%(More)
Diagnosis of chronic Q fever is difficult. PCR and culture lack sensitivity; hence, diagnosis relies mainly on serologic tests using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Optimal phase I IgG cutoff titers are debated but are estimated to be between 1:800 and 1:1,600. In patients with proven, probable, or possible chronic Q fever, we studied phase I IgG(More)
INTRODUCTION A large outbreak of acute Q fever has been reported in the Netherlands with over 3500 cases from 2007 to 2009, during which 749 patients were hospitalised. In foreign cohorts, reported mortality rates in patients hospitalised with acute Q fever, ranged from 0.9 to 2.4%. We analysed mortality among hospitalised patients with acute Q fever in the(More)
Little is known about the effect of timing of antibiotic treatment on development of IgG antibodies following acute Q fever. We studied IgG antibody responses in symptomatic patients diagnosed either before or during development of the serologic response to Coxiella burnetii. Between 15 and 31 May 2009, 186 patients presented with acute Q fever, of which(More)
From 2007 to 2010, the Netherlands experienced the largest reported Q fever outbreak, with >4,000 notified cases. We showed previously that C-reactive protein is the only traditional infection marker reflecting disease activity in acute Q fever. Interleukin-6 is the principal inducer of C-reactive protein. We questioned whether increased C-reactive protein(More)