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Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are common and generally benign conditions among healthy, sexually active young women without long-term medical sequelae. In contrast, UTIs are more complicated among those individuals at either end of the age spectrum: infants/young children and geriatrics. UTI in children younger than 2 years has been associated with(More)
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a frequent diagnosis in children who are referred to the urologist. Although most infections will resolve without complication after appropriate treatment, a wide array of potential complicating factors exists, which can make difficult the rapid resolution of a UTI. Clinical scenarios involving these factors require a high(More)
PURPOSE Renal parenchymal damage is a well recognized sequela of urinary tract infection in the setting of vesicoureteral reflux. We investigated renal magnetic resonance imaging as a quantitative modality to detect renal parenchymal damage in children with primary vesicoureteral reflux and urinary tract infection. MATERIALS AND METHODS We retrospectively(More)
Current clinical judgment in bladder cancer (BC) relies primarily on pathological stage and grade. We investigated whether a molecular classification of tumor cell differentiation, based on a developmental biology approach, can provide additional prognostic information. Exploiting large preexisting gene-expression databases, we developed a biologically(More)
Major clinical issues in bladder cancer include the identification of prediction markers and novel therapeutic targets for invasive bladder cancer. In the current study, we describe the isolation and characterization of a tumor-initiating cell (T-IC) subpopulation in primary human bladder cancer, based on the expression of markers similar to that of normal(More)
A prospective study was designed to examine the relationship of mast cells, and eosinophilic leukocyte density and mediator levels to clinical and histological parameters of interstitial cystitis. Interstitial cystitis and control patients underwent bladder biopsy with histological examination, and quantification of intact and degranulated mast cell and(More)
OBJECTIVE Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) is a commonly performed radiologic procedure in children that can be both painful and frightening. Given the distress that some children experience during the VCUG and the need for children to be alert and cooperative during the procedure, finding a psychological intervention that helps children to manage anxiety,(More)
Several studies have reported histologic findings in interstitial cystitis (IC) bladder biopsy specimens. However, these studies used a variety of criteria to define IC, which may explain the variation noted in the histologic changes. Clinical experience shows that these biopsy specimens are often not helpful in confirming the diagnosis. Our study was(More)
Tumor characteristics thought to predict for development of deep muscle invasion after resection of superficial bladder cancer were retrospectively analyzed in 252 patients with transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder at Stanford University Medical Center. Stage 0 patients accounted for 190 of the patient population (75.5%), while stage A and B1(More)
The urinary tract is a relatively common site of infection in infants and young children. Urinary tract infection (UTI) may result in significant acute morbidity, as well as longterm medical complications. Recent advances elucidating the pathogen-host interaction have broadened the understanding of the pathogenesis and clinical progression of pediatric UTI.(More)