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BACKGROUND The incidence of stroke is predicted to rise because of the rapidly ageing population. However, over the past two decades, findings of randomised trials have identified several interventions that are effective in prevention of stroke. Reliable data on time-trends in stroke incidence, major risk factors, and use of preventive treatments in an(More)
BACKGROUND Acute coronary, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular events have common underlying arterial pathology, risk factors, and preventive treatments, but they are rarely studied concurrently. In the Oxford Vascular Study, we determined the comparative epidemiology of different acute vascular syndromes, their current burdens, and the potential(More)
BACKGROUND The risk of recurrent stroke is up to 10% in the week after a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke. Modelling studies suggest that urgent use of existing preventive treatments could reduce the risk by 80-90%, but in the absence of evidence many health-care systems make little provision. Our aim was to determine the effect of more(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Validity of comparisons of stroke incidence between studies or time periods depends on the completeness of ascertainment. Ascertainment cannot be reliably assessed indirectly by statistical methods, such as capture-recapture. We report the first use of direct methods to determine the completeness of different ascertainment strategies(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) are proposed as short cognitive tests for use after stroke, but there are few published validations against a neuropsychological battery. We studied the relationship between MoCA, ACE-R, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and mild(More)
BACKGROUND It is often assumed that blood pressure increases acutely after major stroke, resulting in so-called post-stroke hypertension. In view of evidence that the risks and benefits of blood pressure-lowering treatment in acute stroke might differ between patients with major ischaemic stroke and those with primary intracerebral haemorrhage, we compared(More)
BACKGROUND Prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) is >10% at age ≥80 years, but the impact of population aging on rates of AF-related ischemic events is uncertain. METHODS AND RESULTS We studied age-specific incidence, outcome, and cost of all AF-related incident strokes and systemic emboli from 2002 to 2012 in the Oxford Vascular Study (OXVASC). We(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the 5-year impact of stroke and TIA on utility and quality-adjusted survival. METHODS TIA and stroke patients from a UK population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study) were recruited from 2002 to 2007, and followed up until 2012. Quality of life was assessed over 5 years using the EQ-5D (EuroQol-5 Dimensions), with responses converted(More)
BACKGROUND Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is at least as prevalent as dementia after transient ischaemic attack (TIA)/stroke and is increasingly recognised as an important outcome in observational studies and randomised trials. However, there is no consensus on how impairment should be defined, and numerous different criteria exist. Previous studies have(More)
A model that makes use of the cooperative organization of inorganic and organic molecular species into three dimensionally structured arrays is generalized for the synthesis of nanocomposite materials. In this model, the properties and structure of a system are determined by dynamic interplay among ion-pair inorganic and organic species, so that different(More)