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Unlike normal mature limb skeletal muscles, in which satellite cells are quiescent unless the muscle is injured, satellite cells in mammalian adult extraocular muscles (EOM) are chronically activated. This is evidenced by hepatocyte growth factor, the myogenic regulatory factor, Pax-7, and the cell-cycle marker, Ki-67, localized to the satellite cell(More)
Local anesthetics, particularly bupivacaine, are known to be myotoxic to skeletal muscle. Injury is followed by satellite cell mediated regeneration. The eyelid is a common site for the injection of local anesthetics. Due to the complex anatomy of this region and the unique properties of facial musculature compared to limb skeletal muscle, the response of(More)
Extraocular muscles (EOM) are unique among mammalian skeletal muscles in that they normally express molecules associated with muscle development and regeneration. In this study we show that satellite cells of EOM, unlike those of other skeletal muscles, continually divide in the normal, uninjured adult. Adult EOM contained activated satellite cells positive(More)
Because complex structural differences in adult extraocular muscles may have physiological and pathophysiological significance, the three-dimensional pattern of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression within the orbital and global layers of the muscle bellies compared with the distal tendon ends was quantitatively assessed. Three of the six extraocular(More)
PURPOSE We recently demonstrated that there is a continuous process of myonuclear addition into normal, uninjured adult myofibers in rabbit extraocular muscles (EOM). This phenomenon is not seen in skeletal muscles from normal, adult limbs. These features may explain the selective involvement of the EOM in progressive external ophthalmoplegia and(More)
Fiber type shifts in aging skeletal muscle have been studied with myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and gel electrophoresis, but less commonly with immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical study of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) in single myofibers yields additional information about aged skeletal muscle. Furthermore, many studies of aging rodent skeletal(More)
The extraocular muscles (EOM) are spared from pathology in aging and many forms of muscular dystrophy. Despite many studies, this sparing remains an enigma. The EOM have a distinct embryonic lineage compared to somite-derived muscles, and we have shown that they continuously remodel throughout life, maintaining a population of activated satellite cells even(More)
This study evaluated mature and immature myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform immunolocalisation in soleus muscle of diabetic rats with documented motor neuropathy. Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: control (C), diabetic with insulin (DI), or diabetic without insulin (DNI). Twelve weeks after diabetes induction, soleus muscles were(More)
PURPOSE The conjunctival epithelium performs an important role in the homeostasis and integrity of the eye. To protect the integrity of the ocular surface, these cells must be replaced from locally concentrated or randomly distributed foci of stem cells. These slow-cycling stem cells produce transient amplifying cells that undergo further divisions before(More)