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Unlike normal mature limb skeletal muscles, in which satellite cells are quiescent unless the muscle is injured, satellite cells in mammalian adult extraocular muscles (EOM) are chronically activated. This is evidenced by hepatocyte growth factor, the myogenic regulatory factor, Pax-7, and the cell-cycle marker, Ki-67, localized to the satellite cell(More)
Because complex structural differences in adult extraocular muscles may have physiological and pathophysiological significance, the three-dimensional pattern of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform expression within the orbital and global layers of the muscle bellies compared with the distal tendon ends was quantitatively assessed. Three of the six extraocular(More)
Extraocular muscles (EOM) are unique among mammalian skeletal muscles in that they normally express molecules associated with muscle development and regeneration. In this study we show that satellite cells of EOM, unlike those of other skeletal muscles, continually divide in the normal, uninjured adult. Adult EOM contained activated satellite cells positive(More)
PURPOSE We recently demonstrated that there is a continuous process of myonuclear addition into normal, uninjured adult myofibers in rabbit extraocular muscles (EOM). This phenomenon is not seen in skeletal muscles from normal, adult limbs. These features may explain the selective involvement of the EOM in progressive external ophthalmoplegia and(More)
Fiber type shifts in aging skeletal muscle have been studied with myofibrillar ATPase histochemistry and gel electrophoresis, but less commonly with immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemical study of myosin heavy chains (MHCs) in single myofibers yields additional information about aged skeletal muscle. Furthermore, many studies of aging rodent skeletal(More)
This study evaluated mature and immature myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform immunolocalisation in soleus muscle of diabetic rats with documented motor neuropathy. Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to one of three groups: control (C), diabetic with insulin (DI), or diabetic without insulin (DNI). Twelve weeks after diabetes induction, soleus muscles were(More)
PURPOSE The conjunctival epithelium performs an important role in the homeostasis and integrity of the eye. To protect the integrity of the ocular surface, these cells must be replaced from locally concentrated or randomly distributed foci of stem cells. These slow-cycling stem cells produce transient amplifying cells that undergo further divisions before(More)
PURPOSE To determine the acute histologic and ultrastructural effects of a recently developed muscle-specific immunotoxin, ricin-mAb 35. METHODS Graduated doses of ricin-mAb 35, composed of ricin conjugated to a monoclonal antibody against the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of skeletal muscle, were injected into one superior rectus muscle in rabbits.(More)
PURPOSE This study examined the subacute myotoxic effects of injection of the local anesthetic bupivacaine on the orbicularis oculi muscle in the rabbit eyelid. In contrast to other muscles, the orbicularis oculi was resistant to injury by the usual anesthetic doses of bupivacaine when local infiltration is used. An attempt was made to assess the(More)
The orbicularis oculi muscle is a complex facial muscle involved in eyelid closure. The central parts of pretarsal and preseptal regions of the palpebral part of the orbicularis oculi muscle in rabbit and cynomolgus monkey lower eyelids were examined histologically and were analyzed for muscle fiber number, muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber type(More)