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A closed-tube polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was developed to allow the rapid detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA. This assay targets the VP72 gene of ASFV and uses the 5'-nuclease assay (TaqMan) system to detect PCR amplicons, avoiding tube opening and potential cross-contamination of post-PCR products. An artificial mimic was engineered(More)
Dynein is a minus-end-directed microtubule-associated motor protein involved in cargo transport in the cytoplasm. African swine fever virus (ASFV), a large DNA virus, hijacks the microtubule motor complex cellular transport machinery during virus infection of the cell through direct binding of virus protein p54 to the light chain of cytoplasmic dynein(More)
African swine fever (ASF) is a devastating haemorrhagic fever of pigs with mortality rates approaching 100 per cent. It causes major economic losses, threatens food security and limits pig production in affected countries. ASF is caused by a large DNA virus, African swine fever virus (ASFV). There is no vaccine against ASFV and this limits the options for(More)
African swine fever virus (ASFV) can cause an acutely fatal haemorrhagic fever in domestic pigs although in its natural hosts, warthogs, bushpigs and the soft tick vector, Ornithodoros moubata, ASFV causes inapparent persistent infections. The virus is a large, cytoplasmic, double-stranded DNA virus which has a tropism for macrophages. As it is the only(More)
OBJECTIVE Understanding the complex diagnostic and treatment issues posed by the co-occurrence of severe mental illness and substance use disorders has become a necessary exercise in current psychiatric practice. The authors reviewed research studies from the past six years that have contributed to our knowledge about effective assessment, diagnosis, course(More)
African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a highly virulent swine pathogen that has spread across Eastern Europe since 2007 and for which there is no effective vaccine or treatment available. The dynamics of shedding and excretion is not well known for this currently circulating ASFV strain. Therefore, susceptible pigs were exposed to pigs intramuscularly(More)
Cytokines stimulate inflammatory defenses against viral infections. In order to evade host defenses, viruses have developed strategies to counteract antiviral cytokines. African swine fever virus (ASFV) is a large, double-stranded DNA virus that infects macrophages. This study demonstrates that ASFV effectively inhibited phorbol myristic acid-induced(More)
The transcription factor NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) controls the expression of many immunomodulatory proteins. African swine fever virus inhibits proinflammatory cytokine expression in infected macrophages, and a viral protein A238L was found to display the activity of the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A by inhibiting NFAT-regulated(More)
The African swine fever virus protein A238L inhibits activation of NFAT transcription factor by binding calcineurin and inhibiting its phosphatase activity. NFAT controls the expression of many immunomodulatory proteins. Here we describe a 14-amino-acid region of A238L that is needed and sufficient for binding to calcineurin. By introducing mutations within(More)
African swine fever is a highly contagious disease of pigs in Africa. Although its persistence in Senegal may be caused by asymptomatic carriers involved in the domestic transmission cycle, we demonstrated that the soft tick Ornithodoros sonrai can be naturally infected with the causative agent.