Linda Josephson

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Despite advances in treatment, the mortality rate of patients who develop cardiogenic shock after an acute myocardial infarction remains unacceptably high. This article presents an overview of cardiogenic shock--incidence, epidemiology, predisposing factors, pathophysiology, and management, both medical and surgical.
Brain edema and the resulting increase in intracranial pressure may be the result of several conditions: head trauma, intracranial hemorrhage, embolic stroke, infections, tumors, and alterations in cerebral spinal fluid production or absorption. At times, these patients may be treated outside of the neurological intensive care unit (ICU) for a variety of(More)
Infective endocarditis (IE) is a relatively uncommon condition that can present with a variety of noncardiac symptoms, making diagnosis of this condition challenging. Although IE is no longer uniformly fatal as it was in the preantibiotic era, it still has a high mortality rate. The major risk factor for IE, rheumatic fever, has decreased significantly in(More)
There is an increasing need for nurses to interpret a 12-lead electrocardiogram, both in critical care units and in other areas. This can be a challenging task, especially in the presence of hypertrophies, bundle-branch blocks, and fascicular blocks. This article reviews the pathophysiology of intraventricular blocks and hypertrophy, characteristics found(More)
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