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BACKGROUND There are few clinical tools that assess decision-making under risk. Tests that characterize sensitivity and bias in decisions between prospects varying in magnitude and probability of gain may provide insights in conditions with anomalous reward-related behaviour. OBJECTIVE We designed a simple test of how subjects integrate information about(More)
Perceptual studies suggest that processing facial identity emphasizes upper-face information, whereas processing expressions of anger or happiness emphasizes the lower-face. The two goals of the present study were to determine (a) if the distributions of eye fixations reflect these upper/lower-face biases, and (b) whether this bias is task- or(More)
BACKGROUND Motion perception may be preserved after damage to striate cortex (primary visual cortex, area V1). Awareness and normal discrimination of fast-moving stimuli have been observed even in the complete absence of V1. These facts suggest that motion-sensitive cortex (the V5/MT complex or V5/MT+) may be activated by direct thalamic or collicular(More)
Individuals vary widely in their ability to orient within the environment. We used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate whether this ability, as measured by navigational performance in a virtual environment, correlates with the anatomic structural properties of the hippocampus, i.e., fractional anisotropy. We found that individuals with high fractional(More)
OBJECTIVE Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a progressive neurovisceral disorder with disrupted intracellular cholesterol metabolism that results in significant alterations to neuronal and axonal structure. Adult patients present with ataxia, gaze palsy, impaired cognition, and neuropsychiatric illness, but the neural substrate has not been(More)
When a monkey searches for a colour and orientation feature conjunction target, the scan path is guided to target coloured locations in preference to locations containing the target orientation [Vision Res. 38 (1998b) 1805]. An active vision model, using biased competition, is able to replicate this behaviour. As object-based attention develops in(More)
New treatment options for Niemann-Pick Type C (NPC) have recently become available. To assess the efficiency and efficacy of these new treatment markers for disease status and progression are needed. Both the diagnosis and the monitoring of disease progression are challenging and mostly rely on clinical impression and functional testing of horizontal eye(More)
Monkey studies report greater activity in the lateral intraparietal area and more efficient saccades when targets coincide with the location of prior reward cues, even when cue location does not indicate which responses will be rewarded. This suggests that reward can modulate spatial attention and visual selection independent of the "action value" of the(More)
Single cell recordings in monkey inferior temporal cortex (IT) and area V4 during visual search tasks indicate that modulation of responses by the search target object occurs in the late portion of the cell's sensory response (Chelazzi et al. in J Neurophysiol 80:2918-2940, 1998; Cereb Cortex 11:761-772, 2001) whereas attention to a spatial location(More)