Linda J. Johnson

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The hedgehog (Hh) pathway is conserved from Drosophila to humans and plays a key role in embryonic development. In addition, activation of the pathway in somatic cells contributes to cancer development in several tissues. Suppressor of fused is a negative regulator of Hh signaling. Targeted disruption of the murine suppressor of fused gene (Sufu) led to a(More)
OBJECTIVES The Atrial Therapy Efficacy and Safety Trial (ATTEST) was a prospective, randomized study to evaluate preventive pacing and antitachycardia pacing (ATP) in patients with symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial tachycardia (AT). BACKGROUND The effect of the combination of atrial prevention and termination algorithms on AT/AF burden and(More)
The Alternaria alternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide, host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. We recently cloned a cyclic peptide synthetase gene, AMT, whose product catalyzes the production of AM-toxin and showed that it resides on chromosomes of 1.8 Mb or less, depending on the(More)
The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content(More)
Most fungi and bacteria express specific mechanisms for the acquisition of iron from the hosts they infect for their own survival. This is primarily because iron plays a key catalytic role in various vital cellular reactions in conjunction with the fact that iron is not freely available in these environments due to host sequestration. High-affinity iron(More)
Neotyphodium and Epichloë spp are closely related asexual and sexual endophytic fungi, respectively, that form mutualistic associations with cool season grasses of the subfamily Pooideae. The endophytes confer a number of advantages to their hosts, but also can cause animal toxicoses and these effects are, in many cases, due to the production of fungal(More)
An Auditory Ambiguity Test (AAT) was taken twice by nonmusicians, musical amateurs, and professional musicians. The AAT comprised different tone pairs, presented in both within-pair orders, in which overtone spectra rising in pitch were associated with missing fundamental frequencies (F0) falling in pitch, and vice versa. The F0 interval ranged from 2 to 9(More)
Direct-infusion mass spectrometry (MS) was applied to study the metabolic effects of the symbiosis between the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium lolii and its host perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) in three different tissues (immature leaf, blade, and sheath). Unbiased direct-infusion MS using a linear ion trap mass spectrometer allowed metabolic effects to(More)
A number of genes encoding non-ribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) have been identified in fungi of Epichloë/Neotyphodium species, endophytes of Pooid grasses, including sidN, putatively encoding a ferrichrome siderophore-synthesizing NRPS. Targeted gene replacement and complementation of sidN in Epichloë festucae has established that extracellular(More)
Based on direct infusion mass spectrometry we identified a novel alkaloid as a major component of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Initial mass spectral data suggested it to be a pyrrolizidine conjugate. As this class of alkaloids has not been described before from grasses, we isolated it to elucidate its structure. The isolated alkaloid proved to be a(More)