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BACKGROUND Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema are a frequent result of long-term smoking, but the exact mechanisms, specifically which types of cells are associated with the lung destruction, are unclear. METHODS AND FINDINGS We studied different subsets of lymphocytes taken from portions of human lungs removed surgically to find out(More)
Direct predation upon parasites has the potential to reduce infection in host populations. For example, the fungal parasite of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is commonly transmitted through a free-swimming zoospore stage that may be vulnerable to predation. Potential predators of Bd include freshwater zooplankton that graze on organisms in(More)
The aims of this study were twofold: to develop and test an animal-based protocol for the assessment of the physical and emotional elements of the welfare of laying hens on free-range units and to investigate the effects of different approaches to housing and management on the welfare of the birds. The protocol was tested on 25 free-range units for laying(More)
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