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Galectin-1, a member of the family of beta-galactoside binding proteins, has growth regulatory and immunomodulatory activities. We report here that galectin-1, expressed by stromal cells in human thymus and lymph nodes, is present at sites of cell death by apoptosis during normal T-cell development and maturation. Galectin-1 induced apoptosis of activated(More)
Genetic and biologic observations suggest that pigs may serve as "mixing vessels" for the generation of human-avian influenza A virus reassortants, similar to those responsible for the 1957 and 1968 pandemics. Here we demonstrate a structural basis for this hypothesis. Cell surface receptors for both human and avian influenza viruses were identified in the(More)
Apoptotic elimination of T cells at sites of inflammation or infiltration into tumors limits an effective immune response. T cell apoptosis can be initiated by a variety of triggers, including galectin-1, a soluble, secreted lectin that binds to oligosaccharide ligands on cell surface glycoproteins, or to oligosaccharide ligands on extracellular matrix(More)
Regulated glycosylation controls T cell processes, including activation, differentiation and homing by creating or masking ligands for endogenous lectins. Here we show that stimuli promoting T helper type 1 (TH1), TH2 or interleukin 17-producing T helper (TH-17) differentiation can differentially regulate the glycosylation pattern of T helper cells and(More)
We describe that galectin-1 (gal-1) is a receptor for the angiogenesis inhibitor anginex, and that the protein is crucial for tumor angiogenesis. gal-1 is overexpressed in endothelial cells of different human tumors. Expression knockdown in cultured endothelial cells inhibits cell proliferation and migration. The importance of gal-1 in angiogenesis is(More)
The cDNAs encoding two human homologs of the Xenopus oocyte lectin, XL35, were isolated from a small intestine cDNA library and termed HL-1 and HL-2. The deduced amino acid sequence of each homolog is about 60% identical and 80% similar to that of XL35, and none of these sequences contains the C-type lectin motif, although it is known that XL35 requires(More)
Galectin-1, a beta-galactoside binding protein, is produced by thymic epithelial cells and binds to human thymocytes. We have previously reported that galectin-1 induces the apoptosis of activated T lymphocytes. Because the majority of thymocytes die via apoptosis while still within the thymus, we tested whether galectin-1 could induce the apoptosis of(More)
Galectin-1 induces apoptosis of human thymocytes and activated T cells by an unknown mechanism. Apoptosis is a novel function for a mammalian lectin; moreover, given the ubiquitous distribution of the oligosaccharide ligand recognized by galectin-1, it is not clear how susceptibility to and signaling by galectin-1 is regulated. We have determined that(More)
Control of cell death is critical in eukaryotic development, immune system homeostasis, and control of tumorigenesis. The galectin family of lectins is implicated in all of these processes. Other families of molecules function as death receptors or death effectors, but galectins are uniquely capable of acting both extracellularly and intracellularly to(More)
 Lectins, or carbohydrate binding proteins, recognize specific oligosaccharide structures on glycoproteins and glycolipids. Several families of animal lectins have been identified; for some of these lectins, functions such as leukocyte adhesion and microbial opsonization have been described. The galectins are a family of lectins found in species ranging(More)