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Direct predation upon parasites has the potential to reduce infection in host populations. For example, the fungal parasite of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is commonly transmitted through a free-swimming zoospore stage that may be vulnerable to predation. Potential predators of Bd include freshwater zooplankton that graze on organisms in(More)
The aims of this study were twofold: to develop and test an animal-based protocol for the assessment of the physical and emotional elements of the welfare of laying hens on free-range units and to investigate the effects of different approaches to housing and management on the welfare of the birds. The protocol was tested on 25 free-range units for laying(More)
We present a mathematical model that lends support to the hypothesis that estrogen levels mediate the complex relationship between body mass index (BMI), menopausal status, estrogen-only hormone replacement therapy (HRT), and breast cancer risk. The model predicts a decrease in the relative risk of breast cancer of 3% per unit increase in BMI (kg/m(2)) for(More)
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