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Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles are implicated as genetic risk factors for many autoimmune diseases. However, the role of the HLA loci in human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains unclear. Using a dense map of polymorphic microsatellites across the HLA region in a large collection of families with SLE, we identified three(More)
Direct predation upon parasites has the potential to reduce infection in host populations. For example, the fungal parasite of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), is commonly transmitted through a free-swimming zoospore stage that may be vulnerable to predation. Potential predators of Bd include freshwater zooplankton that graze on organisms in(More)
A dense gene-based SNP map was constructed across a 360-kb region containing the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL1A, IL1B, and IL1RN), focusing on IL1RN. In total, 95 polymorphisms were confirmed or identified primarily by direct sequencing. Polymorphisms were precisely mapped to completed BAC and genomic sequences spanning this region. The polymorphisms were(More)
A modified head-space analysis technique, coupling thermal extraction with subsequent adsorption of organics on a poly (para 2,6-diphenyl phenylene) oxide adsorbent (Tenax-GC), has been found to be an efficacious tool when combined with gas chromatography for the study and monitoring of low molecular weight organics present in drinking water supplies (1-4).(More)
High levels of acid deposition have severely affected streamwater chemistry in the southern Appalachians. Plethodontid stream salamanders living in and around headwater streams rely on cutaneous respiration and are highly susceptible to changes in water quality. We examined the sensitivity to low pH conditions in four stream salamanders by monitoring the(More)
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