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In three experiments, we examined the role of delays within overt verbal responding in causing effects of word length on immediate recall. Although a phonological memory decay mechanism has been implicated by past research on word length effects, the exact basis of the effect remains unclear. The added difficulty of recalling longer words could arise both(More)
Patterns of fetal drinking behavior were quantified in five singleton fetuses (128 +/- 1 days gestation) by computer analysis of laryngeal-esophageal electromyography (EMG) and thoracic esophageal fluid flow. Esophageal flow was noted to be bidirectional with an average antegrade flow-to-retrograde flow ratio of 4.4 +/- 1.5. Retrograde esophageal flow(More)
Serial recall was studied in children with language impairment and two groups of normally achieving controls: a group matched for age and a younger group matched for reading and memory capacity. Participants were presented lists of digits that were one item longer than their memory span, in conditions requiring either written or oral recall. Digit lists(More)
In adults, hyperosmolality stimulates central osmoreceptors, resulting in arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion. Near-term fetal sheep have also developed mechanisms to respond to intravascular hypertonicity with stimulation of in utero AVP release. However, prior studies demonstrating fetal AVP secretion have utilized plasma tonicity changes greater than(More)
A computer-based system, incorporating electromyography (EMG) and esophageal fluid flow measurement, was used to determine fetal breathing and swallowing responses to graded maternal hypoxemia. Five chronically prepared ewes with singleton fetuses at a gestational age of 130 +/- 2 (SE) days were subjected to successive 30-min periods of mild and moderate(More)
OBJECTIVE Fetal swallowing contributes importantly to amniotic fluid volume regulation and fetal gastrointestinal maturation. Near-term ovine fetal swallowing occurs in discrete bouts of activity (at approximately 30-min intervals) in association with fetal electrocortical voltage changes. Thus, swallowing rhythms have been hypothesized to be entrained to(More)
The fetal swallowing and endocrine responses to systemic hypotension were studied in five chronically instrumented ovine fetuses (125 +/- 2 days). Fetuses were prepared with bipolar electrodes inserted in the thyrohyoid muscle, nuchal esophagus, and thoracic esophagus, a flow probe surrounding the thoracic esophagus, and arterial and venous catheters. In(More)
The present study examined physiological and cellular responses to central application of ANG II in ovine fetuses and determined the fetal central ANG-mediated dipsogenic sites in utero. Chronically prepared near-term ovine fetuses (130 +/- 2 days) received injection of ANG II (1.5 microg/kg icv). Fetuses were monitored for 3.5 h for swallowing activity,(More)
Amniotic fluid (AF) volume regulation is dependent on a balance between fluid production and fluid resorption. We examined the effects of reduced AF volume on AF production by fetal urine and resorption by fetal swallowing and the response of these parameters to AF volume replacement. Eight time-dated pregnant ewes (125 +/- 1 days gestation) were studied(More)
This case study presents a ten-year speech treatment history of a young adult Wilson's disease patient in whom a severe dysarthria persisted despite drug and dietry controls. The patient was initially classified as "100% disabled" and was compensated because of his severe communication disorder. As he progressed, he ultimately secured full-time employment(More)