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BACKGROUND Human embryonic stem (hES) cells are a promising source for transplantation to replace diseased or damaged tissue, but their differentiated progeny express human leucocyte antigens (HLAs) that will probably cause graft rejection. The creation of a bank of HLA-typed hES cells, from which a best match could be selected, would help reduce the(More)
Random effects models are used in many applications in medical statistics, including meta-analysis, cluster randomized trials and comparisons of health care providers. This paper provides a tutorial on the practical implementation of a flexible random effects model based on methodology developed in Bayesian non-parametrics literature, and implemented in(More)
Many chronic diseases have a natural interpretation in terms of staged progression. Multistate models based on Markov processes are a well-established method of estimating rates of transition between stages of disease. However, diagnoses of disease stages are sometimes subject to error. The paper presents a general hidden Markov model for simultaneously(More)
Oncologists traditionally assess their patients' ECOG performance status (PS), and few studies have evaluated the accuracy of these assessments. In this study, 101 patients attending a rapid access clinic at Papworth Hospital with a diagnosis of lung cancer were asked to assess their own ECOG PS score on a scale between 0 and 4. Patients' scores were(More)
Health economic decision models are subject to considerable uncertainty, much of which arises from choices between several plausible model structures, e.g. choices of covariates in a regression model. Such structural uncertainty is rarely accounted for formally in decision models but can be addressed by model averaging. We discuss the most common methods of(More)
Forty-four patients undergoing coronary artery surgery were allocated randomly to receive an infusion of propofol or methohexitone as a hypnotic supplement to a fentanyl-based anaesthetic technique. A taped message was played to the patients, consisting of 10 words associated with prompt sentences and a suggestion for a specific postoperative behavioural(More)
BACKGROUND Transmyocardial laser revascularisation (TMLR) is used to treat patients with refractory angina due to severe coronary artery disease, not suitable for conventional revascularisation. We aimed in a randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of TMLR compared with medical management. METHODS 188 patients with refractory angina were(More)
BACKGROUND The EuroQoL 5D (EQ-5D) has been widely used in studies of cardiac disease, but its measurement properties in this group are not well established. The study aimed to quantify the relationship between measures commonly used in studies of cardiac disease and the EQ-5D index across different levels of disease severity. METHODS Patient-level data(More)
BACKGROUND Malignant pleural mesothelioma incidence continues to rise, with few available evidence-based therapeutic options. Results of previous non-randomised studies suggested that video-assisted thoracoscopic partial pleurectomy (VAT-PP) might improve symptom control and survival. We aimed to compare efficacy in terms of overall survival, and cost, of(More)
Health economic decision models are subject to various forms of uncertainty, including uncertainty about the parameters of the model and about the model structure. These uncertainties can be handled within a Bayesian framework, which also allows evidence from previous studies to be combined with the data. As an example, we consider a Markov model for(More)