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MRI is a sensitive method for detecting subtle anatomic abnormalities in the neonatal brain. To optimize the usefulness for neonatal and pediatric care, systematic research, based on quantitative image analysis and functional correlation, is required. Normalization-based image analysis is one of the most effective methods for image quantification and(More)
HIV has a propensity to invade subcortical regions of the brain, which may lead to a subcortical dementia termed HIV-cognitive motor complex. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether dopamine (DA) D2 receptors and transporters (DAT) are affected in the basal ganglia of subjects with HIV, and how these changes relate to dementia status. Fifteen HIV subjects(More)
The ultimate goal of brain connectivity studies is to propose, test, modify, and compare certain directional brain pathways. Path analysis or structural equation modeling (SEM) is an ideal statistical method for such studies. In this work, we propose a two-stage unified SEM plus GLM (General Linear Model) approach for the analysis of multisubject,(More)
BACKGROUND Little is known about structural brain abnormalities associated with methamphetamine (METH) abuse; therefore, we aimed: 1) to evaluate possible morphometric changes, especially in the striatum of recently abstinent METH-dependent subjects; 2) to evaluate whether morphometric changes are related to cognitive performance; and 3) to determine(More)
The purpose of this pilot study was to examine possible neurotoxic effects of prenatal methamphetamine (Meth) exposure on the developing brain and on cognition. Meth-exposed children (n=13) and unexposed control subjects (n=15) were evaluated with MRI. Global brain volumes and regional brain structures were quantified. Ten Meth-exposed and nine unexposed(More)
Structural MRI allows unparalleled in vivo study of the anatomy of the developing human brain. For more than two decades, MRI research has revealed many new aspects of this multifaceted maturation process, significantly augmenting scientific knowledge gathered from postmortem studies. Postnatal brain development is notably protracted and involves(More)
AIMS To review structural, chemical and metabolic brain changes, particularly those in the basal ganglia, in individuals who used methamphetamine, as well as in children with prenatal methamphetamine exposure. METHODS Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) studies that evaluated brain structural, chemical and metabolite(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the neural correlates of attention and working memory deficits in patients with HIV-1. METHOD fMRI was used to evaluate brain activity in 11 patients with HIV and 11 age-, sex-, education-, and handedness-matched seronegative subjects, while performing a battery of tasks that required different levels of attention for working(More)
Attention and memory deficits have been reported in heavy marijuana users, but these effects may be reversible after prolonged abstinence. It remains unclear whether the reversibility of these cognitive deficits indicates that chronic marijuana use does not alter cortical networks, or that such changes occur but the brain adapts to the drug-induced changes.(More)
Snail family proteins are key regulators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, but their role in endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is less well studied. We show that Slug, a Snail family member, is expressed by a subset of endothelial cells as well as mesenchymal cells of the atrioventricular canal and outflow tract during cardiac cushion(More)