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Excessive accumulation of neurofilaments in the cell bodies and proximal axons of motor neurons is a major pathological hallmark during the early stages of many human motor neuron diseases. To test directly the consequence of overexpression of the major neurofilament subunit NF-L, we produced transgenic mice that accumulate NF-L to approximately 4-fold the(More)
Aging is accompanied by a gradual decline in memory in both humans and nonhuman primates. To determine whether the impairment in nonhuman primates extends to recognition memory, which is a sensitive index of the integrity of the limbic system, we trained rhesus monkeys of four different age groups (3-6, 14-17, 20-24, and 25-29 years of age) on a delayed(More)
Hereditary canine spinal muscular atrophy (HCSMA) is an autosomally dominant disease of motor neurons that shares many pathological features with human motor neuron disease. A particularly striking feature of the affected, accelerated phenotype (homozygous HCSMA) is that profound weakness develops before appreciable motor neuron cell death occurs (Cork et(More)
To determine whether the decline of behavioral abilities with aging in monkeys is selective or widespread, we examined 18 monkeys ranging from 3 to 34 years of age on a wide variety of tests with the ultimate goal of correlating behavioral deficits with age-related changes in the brain. In our initial study we found impaired visual recognition ability in(More)
Rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) reared during the first year of life without social contact develop persistent stereotyped movements, self-directed behaviors, and psychosocial abnormalities, but neurobiological mechanisms underlying the behaviors of socially deprived (SD) monkeys are unknown. Monkeys were reared in total social deprivation for the first 9(More)
Age-associated changes in cholinergic, monoaminergic and amino acid neurotransmitter systems were analyzed in 14 brain regions of 23 rhesus monkeys that ranged in age from 2 to 37 years. In the frontal pole, the levels of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) activity, the density of [3H]ketanserin (serotonin type-2) binding sites and endogenous levels of(More)
The authors counted axons in one optic nerve from each of 28 juvenile and aged rhesus monkeys using an automated image analysis system. All nerves were fixed immediately after death and treated identically. Animals ranged in age from 1 1/2 to 29 yr, which correlates with a human age range of 4 1/2-87 yr. Mean axonal number for all specimens was 1,117,859.(More)
The formation of clusters of altered axons and dendrites surrounding extracellular deposits of amyloid filaments (neuritic plaques) is a major feature of the human brain in both aging and Alzheimer's disease. A panel of antibodies against amyloid filaments and their constituent proteins from humans with Alzheimer's disease cross-reacted with neuritic plaque(More)
In aged human beings and in individuals with age-associated degenerative disorders, particularly Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurons develop cytoskeletal abnormalities, including neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile plaques (SP). Senile plaques occur in several nonhuman species; however, NFT, with ultrastructural or immunocytochemical similarities to(More)
A virus was isolated from an adult goat with chronic arthritis and shown to belong to the retrovirus group by electron microscopy and biochemical methods. Inoculation of the virus into cesarean-derived specific-pathogen-free goats' kids produced arthritic lesions similar to those in the spontaneous disease. Vrus was reisolated from the experimentally(More)