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Research conducted in the case study of a large applications system shows that the two primary causes of high maintenance costs are 1. The frequency of user-requested changes to software 2. The psychological complexity of the software A "tool kit" is suggested that, when applied to the design of new systems or rewrites, will 1. Produce systems that(More)
This article reports on a subset of data from nine focus groups. Participants included new and expectant mothers and their partners, friends, and relatives. The larger goal of the focus groups was to understand local infant-feeding practices of mothers in our region. The subset of data reported in this article pertains to breastfeeding failure. The(More)
Documenting application systems has long been considered a necessary evil. Necessary because documentation provides a map to present systems, serves as a maintenance aid, and is required by the auditors; evil because it is an activity generally dreaded by those who develop the systems. Since normal behavior regarding unpleasant chores is avoidance,(More)
Presented here are methods for successfully controlling software maintenance activity so that present systems will be more useful and less expensive to support. While it is based on experience at Los Alamos National Laboratory, it is not based on solutions developed and implemented there. Los Alamos is presently struggling with the problems identified in(More)
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