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The gene unc-76 (unc, uncoordinated) is necessary for normal axonal bundling and elongation within axon bundles in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The UNC-76 protein and two human homologs identified as expressed sequence tags are not similar to previously characterized proteins and thus represent a new protein family. At least one of these human(More)
23. Budding yeast cells detect a single impaired chromosome , very likely because of improper spindle attachment [M. 30. The hazards caused by pairing and recombination are unique to the first meiotic division, and the response , an exposed kinetochore, is also unique to that division. In the second meiotic division, the ki-netochores are arranged just as(More)
Clamp loaders load ring-shaped sliding clamps onto DNA. Once loaded onto DNA, sliding clamps bind to DNA polymerases to increase the processivity of DNA synthesis. To load clamps onto DNA, an open clamp loader-clamp complex must form. An unresolved question is whether clamp loaders capture clamps that have transiently opened or whether clamp loaders bind(More)
Escherichia coli γ complex clamp loader functions to load the β sliding clamp onto sites of DNA replication and repair. The clamp loader uses the energy of ATP binding and hydrolysis to drive conformational changes allowing for β binding and opening, DNA binding, and then release of the β·DNA complex. Although much work has been done studying the sliding(More)
Sliding clamps are ring-shaped oligomeric proteins that are essential for processive deoxyribonucleic acid replication. Although crystallographic structures of several clamps have been determined, much less is known about clamp structure and dynamics in solution. Here, we characterized the intrinsic solution stability and oligomerization dynamics of the(More)
Sliding clamps are loaded onto DNA by clamp loaders to serve the critical role of coordinating various enzymes on DNA. Clamp loaders must quickly and efficiently load clamps at primer/template (p/t) junctions containing a duplex region with a free 3'OH (3'DNA), but it is unclear how clamp loaders target these sites. To measure the Escherichia coli and(More)
Excision repair processes are essential to maintain genome stability. A decrease in efficiency and fidelity of these pathways at regions of the genome that can assume non-canonical DNA structures has been proposed as a possible mechanism to explain the increased mutagenesis and consequent diseased state frequently associated with these sites. Here we(More)
In all domains of life, sliding clamps tether DNA polymerases to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis. Clamp loaders load clamps onto DNA in a multi-step process that requires ATP binding and hydrolysis. Like other AAA+ proteins, clamp loaders contain conserved Walker A and Walker B sequence motifs, which participate in ATP binding and hydrolysis,(More)
Several X-ray crystal structures of the E. coli core clamp loader containing the five core (δ', δ, and three truncated γ) subunits have been determined, but they lack the ψ and χ subunits. We report the first solution structure of the complete seven-subunit clamp loader complex using small angle X-ray scattering. This structure not only provides information(More)
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