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The beta sliding clamp encircles DNA and enables processive replication of the Escherichia coli genome by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The clamp loader, gamma complex, assembles beta around DNA in an ATP-fueled reaction. Previous studies have shown that gamma complex opens the beta ring and also interacts with DNA on binding ATP. Here, a rapid kinetic(More)
Clamp loaders from all domains of life load clamps onto DNA. The clamp tethers DNA polymerases to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis as well as the efficiency of replication. Here, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding and opening by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), and the DNA(More)
DNA polymerase is the critical enzyme maintaining genetic integrity during DNA replication. Individual steps in the replication process that contribute to DNA synthesis fidelity include nucleotide insertion, exonucleolytic proofreading, and binding to and elongation of matched and mismatched primer termini. Each process has been investigated using(More)
The effects of nearest neighbor interactions between a nucleotide base at the primer 3'-terminus and an incoming deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate on DNA polymerase catalyzed insertion were examined. Kinetics of inserting the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2-aminopurine deoxyribonucleotide (dAPMP) and dAMP opposite a template T by 3'-->5'(More)
The fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III (pol III) is measured and the effects of beta, gamma processivity and epsilon proofreading subunits are evaluated using a gel kinetic assay. Pol III holoenzyme synthesizes DNA with extremely high fidelity, misincorporating dTMP, dAMP, and dGMP opposite a template G target with efficiencies finc = 5.6 x(More)
Crystal structures of an Escherichia coli clamp loader have provided insight into the mechanism by which this molecular machine assembles ring-shaped sliding clamps onto DNA. The contributions made to the clamp loading reaction by two subunits, chi and psi, which are not present in the crystal structures, were determined by measuring the activities of three(More)
The base analog, 2-aminopurine (2AP), was used as a fluorescent reporter of the biochemical steps in the proofreading pathway catalyzed by bacteriophage T4 DNA polymerase. "Mutator" DNA polymerases that are defective in different steps in the exonucleolytic proofreading pathway were studied so that transient changes in fluorescence intensity could be(More)
The Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III gamma complex clamp loader assembles the ring-shaped beta sliding clamp onto DNA. The core polymerase is tethered to the template by beta, enabling processive replication of the genome. Here we investigate the DNA substrate specificity of the clamp-loading reaction by measuring the pre-steady-state kinetics of DNA(More)
Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III holoenzyme is a multisubunit composite containing the beta sliding clamp and clamp loading gamma complex. The gamma complex requires ATP to load beta onto DNA. A two-color fluorescence spectroscopic approach was utilized to study this system, wherein both assembly (red fluorescence; X-rhodamine labeled DNA anisotropy(More)