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The fidelity of Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III (pol III) is measured and the effects of beta, gamma processivity and epsilon proofreading subunits are evaluated using a gel kinetic assay. Pol III holoenzyme synthesizes DNA with extremely high fidelity, misincorporating dTMP, dAMP, and dGMP opposite a template G target with efficiencies finc = 5.6 x(More)
The beta sliding clamp encircles DNA and enables processive replication of the Escherichia coli genome by DNA polymerase III holoenzyme. The clamp loader, gamma complex, assembles beta around DNA in an ATP-fueled reaction. Previous studies have shown that gamma complex opens the beta ring and also interacts with DNA on binding ATP. Here, a rapid kinetic(More)
The Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III gamma complex loads the beta clamp onto DNA, and the clamp tethers the core polymerase to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis. ATP binding and hydrolysis promote conformational changes within the gamma complex that modulate its affinity for the clamp and DNA, allowing it to accomplish the mechanical task of(More)
Sliding clamps and clamp loaders were initially identified as DNA polymerase processivity factors. Sliding clamps are ring-shaped protein complexes that encircle and slide along duplex DNA, and clamp loaders are enzymes that load these clamps onto DNA. When bound to a sliding clamp, DNA polymerases remain tightly associated with the template being copied,(More)
Clamp loaders from all domains of life load clamps onto DNA. The clamp tethers DNA polymerases to DNA to increase the processivity of synthesis as well as the efficiency of replication. Here, we investigated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) binding and opening by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae clamp loader, replication factor C (RFC), and the DNA(More)
DNA polymerase is the critical enzyme maintaining genetic integrity during DNA replication. Individual steps in the replication process that contribute to DNA synthesis fidelity include nucleotide insertion, exonucleolytic proofreading, and binding to and elongation of matched and mismatched primer termini. Each process has been investigated using(More)
The effects of nearest neighbor interactions between a nucleotide base at the primer 3'-terminus and an incoming deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate on DNA polymerase catalyzed insertion were examined. Kinetics of inserting the fluorescent nucleotide analog 2-aminopurine deoxyribonucleotide (dAPMP) and dAMP opposite a template T by 3'-->5'(More)
Crystal structures of an Escherichia coli clamp loader have provided insight into the mechanism by which this molecular machine assembles ring-shaped sliding clamps onto DNA. The contributions made to the clamp loading reaction by two subunits, chi and psi, which are not present in the crystal structures, were determined by measuring the activities of three(More)
Human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1, REF1) functions within the base excision repair pathway by catalyzing the hydrolysis of the phosphodiester bond 5 ' to a baseless sugar (apurinic or apyrimidinic site). The AP endonuclease activity of this enzyme and two active site mutants were characterized using equilibrium binding and pre-steady-state kinetic techniques.(More)