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A credit valuation adjustment (CVA) is an adjustment applied to the value of a derivative contract or a portfolio of derivatives to account for counterparty credit risk. Measuring CVA requires combining models of market and credit risk to estimate a counterparty’s risk of default together with the market value of exposure to the counterparty at default.(More)
Klf4 is a transcription factor of the family of Kruppel-like factors and plays important roles in stem cell biology; however, its function during embryogenesis is unknown. Here, we report the characterization of a Klf4 homologue in Xenopus laevis during embryogenesis. Klf4 is transcribed both maternally and zygotically and the transcript is ubiquitous in(More)
We have grown horizontal oriented, high growth rate, well-aligned polar (0001) single crystalline GaN nanowires and high-density and highly aligned GaN nonpolar (11-20) nanowires on r-plane substrates by metal organic chemical vapor deposition. It can be found that the polar nanowires showed a strong yellow luminescence (YL) intensity compared with the(More)
Mass spectrometric methodology was developed for the determination and manipulation of the primary products of fast pyrolysis of carbohydrates. To determine the true primary pyrolysis products, a very fast heating pyroprobe was coupled to a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer through a custom-built adaptor. A home-built flow tube that simulates(More)
The terahertz frequency GaN Gunn diodes with GaN and AlGaN electron launchers are investigated by using an improved NDM model of GaN. The simulations demonstrate that there exists a shift of the oscillation mode from dipole domain mode toward accumulation mode with increased temperature, and the AlGaN launcher GaN Gunn diode can generate better power(More)
The gas-phase reactions of sugars with aromatic, carbon-centered sigma,sigma-biradicals with varying polarities [as reflected by their calculated electron affinities (EA)] and extent of spin-spin coupling [as reflected by their calculated singlet-triplet (S-T) gaps] have been studied. The biradicals are positively charged, which allows them to be(More)
ion. When 56 and the 3-dehydrobenzoate anion were allowed to react with nucleophilic reagents, no reactivity was observed. The negatively charged substituent of 56 appears to bias its reactivity toward electrophilic reagents. Interestingly, 56 was found to react with the strongly electrophilic boron trifluoride to form a new m-benzyne,(More)
A negatively charged biradical intermediate was successfully generated in the gas phase via cyclization of the deprotonated bicyclo[8.3.0]trideca-12-ene-2,7-diyn-1-one precursor. The inherent negative charge of this biradical allows its characterization via collision-activated dissociation and reactions with a variety of neutral substrates in an FT-ICR mass(More)
In order to improve the understanding of the interactions of aromatic sigma,sigma-biradicals with DNA, the reactivity of three isomeric sigma,sigma-biradicals toward four dinucleoside phosphates was studied in a mass spectrometer. The dinucleoside phosphates were evaporated into the mass spectrometer by using laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD). The(More)
The synthesis of furoins from biomass-derived furfural and 2-methylfurfural is demonstrated in high yields in green and renewable solvents using N-heterocyclic carbene organocatalysts. The resulting furoin molecules are used as precursors for fuels using cascade catalysis, first by using Pd/C with acidic co-catalysts under very mild conditions to yield(More)