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RATIONALE Oxidative stress is a key contributor in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis caused by cigarette smoking. NRF2, a redox-sensitive transcription factor, dissociates from its inhibitor, KEAP1, to induce antioxidant expression that inhibits oxidative stress. OBJECTIVES To determine the link between severity of COPD, oxidative(More)
The role of dopamine as a vulnerability factor and a toxic agent in Parkinson's disease (PD) is still controversial, yet the presumed dopamine toxicity is partly responsible for the "DOPA-sparing" clinical practice that avoids using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA), a dopamine precursor, in early PD. There is a lack of studies on animal models that(More)
Mutations in PARKIN, pten-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), and DJ-1 are individually linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial forms of Parkinson disease (PD). Although mutations in these genes lead to the same disease state, the functional relationships between them and how their respective disease-associated mutations cause PD are largely(More)
Smaug is an RNA-binding protein that induces the degradation and represses the translation of mRNAs in the early Drosophila embryo. Smaug has two identified direct target mRNAs that it differentially regulates: nanos and Hsp83. Smaug represses the translation of nanos mRNA but has only a modest effect on its stability, whereas it destabilizes Hsp83 mRNA but(More)
Mutations in the DJ-1 gene were recently identified in an autosomal recessive form of early-onset familial Parkinson disease. Structural biology, biochemistry, and cell biology studies have suggested potential functions of DJ-1 in oxidative stress, protein folding, and degradation pathways. However, animal models are needed to determine whether and how loss(More)
PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), a familial Parkinson's disease (PD)-related gene, is expressed in astrocytes, but little is known about its role in this cell type. Here, we found that astrocytes cultured from PINK1-knockout (KO) mice exhibit defective proliferative responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fetal bovine serum. In PINK1-KO(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction has been reported in both familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effective therapy targeting this pathway is currently inadequate. Recent studies suggest that manipulating the processes of mitochondrial fission and fusion has considerable potential for treating human diseases. To determine the therapeutic impact(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) may be caused by a complex interaction of environmental insults and genetic susceptibilities. Previous studies of DJ-1-deficient mice have noted dopaminergic dysfunction mainly in older mice. To simulate the interaction of genetic factors and environmental factors, we treated DJ-1-deficient mice with paraquat. Even in relatively(More)
In vitro evidence suggests that the inefficient removal of damaged mitochondria by macroautophagy contributes to Parkinson's disease (PD). Using a tissue-specific gene amplification strategy, we generated a transgenic mouse line with human α-synuclein A53T overexpression specifically in dopamine (DA) neurons. Transgenic mice showed profound early-onset(More)
The Wright–Fisher equation, which was introduced as a model to study demography in the presence of diffusion, has had a renaissance as a model for the migration of alleles in the genome. Our goal in this paper is to give a careful analysis of the fundamental solution to the Wright–Fisher equation, with particular emphasis on its behavior for a short time(More)