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Host-cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites is a unique process that is powered by the gliding motility motor and requires a transmembrane link between the parasite cytoskeleton and the host cell. The thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP) from Plasmodium plays such a part during sporozoite invasion by linking to actin through its cytoplasmic tail(More)
Global warming is widely regarded to have played a contributing role in numerous past biotic crises. Here, we show that the end-Permian mass extinction coincided with a rapid temperature rise to exceptionally high values in the Early Triassic that were inimical to life in equatorial latitudes and suppressed ecosystem recovery. This was manifested in the(More)
BACKGROUND The R2R3MYB proteins comprise one of the largest families of transcription factors in plants. Although genome-wide analysis of this family has been carried out in some species, little is known about R2R3MYB genes in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). PRINCIPAL FINDINGS This study has identified 55 R2R3MYB genes in the latest cucumber genome and the(More)
We demonstrated the presence of two adeno-associated viruses (AAVs), designated AAV10 and AAV11, in cynomolgus monkeys by isolating and sequencing the entire viral coding regions from the monkey DNA. AAV10 and AAV11 capsid proteins shared 84% and 65%, respectively, of amino acids with AAV2. A phylogenetic analysis of AAV capsid proteins showed that AAV10(More)
Numerous studies indicate that Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a mammalian nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))-dependent histone deacetylase (HDAC), plays a crucial role in p53-mediated stress responses by deacetylating p53. Nevertheless, the acetylation levels of p53 are dramatically increased upon DNA damage, and it is not well understood how the SIRT1-p53(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying bone cancer pain are poorly understood. Recently, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation was shown to play a major role not only in the production of proinflammatory cytokines but also in the progression of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. We have demonstrated that tactile allodynia and spontaneous pain of(More)
Maternal separation (MS), which can lead to hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis dysfunction and behavioral abnormalities in rhesus monkeys, is frequently used to model early adversity. Whether this deleterious effect on monkeys is reversible by later experience is unknown. In this study, we assessed the basal hair cortisol in rhesus monkeys after 1.5 and 3(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of small regulatory RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Although an increasing number of porcine miRNAs recently have been identified, research has yet to identify the full repertoire of miRNAs in pig skeletal and adipose tissues and their differences between breeds. We(More)
Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a group of neurological disorders characterized by progressive distal degeneration of the longest ascending and descending axons in the spinal cord, leading to lower limb spasticity and weakness. One of the dominantly inherited forms of this disease (spastic gait type 10, or SPG10) is caused by point mutations in(More)