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The surface antigen phenotype of the immediate precursors of clonable B lymphocytes was investigated with conventional alloantisera and monoclonal antibodies directed by B lineage antigens. Ia was demonstrable on B cells, but not their immediate precursors in adult marrow. Adult, but not fetal, B cell precursors were susceptible to lysis with anti-Lyb-2 or(More)
Macrophages acquire distinct phenotypes during tissue stress and inflammatory responses, but the mechanisms that regulate the macrophage polarization are poorly defined. Here we show that tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is a critical regulator of M1 and M2 phenotypes of macrophages. Mice with myeloid-specific deletion of TSC1 exhibit enhanced M1(More)
The identification of antigen-recognizing receptors in the innate immune system significantly helped us to understand the initiation and regulation of the innate immune response. Dectin-1 was recently identified as the most important receptor for beta-glucan. Recognition of beta-glucan by dectin-1 triggers effective immune response, including phagocytosis(More)
A series of 6 hybrid clones are described which produced antibodies directed to murine IgM. These were derived by immunizing rats with W279 B-lymphoma cells and then fusing the immune spleen cells to enzyme-deficient murine plasmacytoma cell lines. Immunoenzymatic techniques were used to select clones producing desirable antibodies to cell surface or(More)
Variation in the TGF-β signaling pathway is emerging as an important mechanism by which gonadal sex determination is controlled in teleosts. Here we show that amhy, a Y-specific duplicate of the anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene, induces male sex determination in Nile tilapia. amhy is a tandem duplicate located immediately downstream of amhΔ-y on the Y(More)
BACKGROUND The development of new therapeutic targets and strategies to control highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus infection in humans is urgently needed. Broadly cross-neutralizing recombinant human antibodies obtained from the survivors of H5N1 avian influenza provide an important role in immunotherapy for human H5N1 virus infection and(More)
Concentrations of 10 perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) were investigated in the Hun River (HR), four canals, ten lakes, and influents and effluents from four main municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shenyang, China. Mass flows of four main PFCs were calculated to elucidate the contribution from different sections of the HR. Overall,(More)
An efficient in vitro mutagenesis protocol for Lilium longiflorum Thunb. cv. White fox has been established. The effect of 6-BA and NAA on adventitious bud formation from the bulblet-scale thin cell layers was tested. Results showed that the optimal medium for adventitious bud induction is MS basal medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l 6-BA and 0.1 mg/l NAA.(More)
Spatial distribution of bacillary dysentery incidence was mapped at the district level in Wuhan, China. And a generalized additive time series model was used to examine the effect of daily weather factors on bacillary dysentery in the high-risk areas, after controlling for potential confounding factors. Central districts were found to be the high-risk(More)
Thymic epithelial cells (TECs) are the key components in thymic microenvironment for T cells development. TECs, composed of cortical and medullary TECs, are derived from a common bipotent progenitor and undergo a stepwise development controlled by multiple levels of signals to be functionally mature for supporting thymocyte development. Tumor necrosis(More)