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The structure of the Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin pore has been determined to 1.9 A resolution. Contained within the mushroom-shaped homo-oligomeric heptamer is a solvent-filled channel, 100 A in length, that runs along the sevenfold axis and ranges from 14 A to 46 A in diameter. The lytic, transmembrane domain comprises the lower half of a(More)
How rapidly will child malnutrition respond to income growth? This article explores that question using household survey data from 12 countries as well as data on malnutrition rates in a cross-section of countries since the 1970s. Both forms of analysis yield similar results. Increases in income at the household and national levels imply similar rates of(More)
Does the availability of internal finance constrain firm growth? Or does it foster it? To answer these questions, we use a panel of 407,096 Chinese firms over the period 2000-2005. We estimate dynamic assets growth equations augmented with cash flow, and find that the growth of state owned enterprises is not affected by cash flow, while that of privately(More)
Several recent studies link parental environments to phenotypes in subsequent generations. In this work, we investigate the mechanism by which paternal diet affects offspring metabolism. Protein restriction in mice affects small RNA (sRNA) levels in mature sperm, with decreased let-7 levels and increased amounts of 5' fragments of glycine transfer RNAs(More)
12/15-Lipoxygenase (LOX) is a member of the LOX family that catalyzes the step from arachidonic acid to hydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs). Previous studies demonstrated that 12/15-LOX plays a critical role in the development of atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, and other diseases; however, its role in myocardial ischemic injury was(More)
FCND Discussion Papers contain preliminary material and research results, and are circulated prior to a full peer review in order to stimulate discussion and critical comment. It is expected that most Discussion Papers will eventually be published in some other form, and that their content may also be revised. FCND Discussion Papers contain preliminary(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease; survival in ALS is typically 3-5 years. No treatment extends patient survival by more than three months. Approximately 20% of familial ALS and 1-3% of sporadic ALS patients carry a mutation in the gene encoding superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). In a transgenic ALS mouse model expressing(More)
The rate of retinal photoisomerization in wild-type bacteriorhodopsin (wt bR) is compared with that in a number of mutants in which a positively charged (Arg(82)), a negatively charged (Asp(85) or Asp(212)), or neutral hydrogen bonding (Asp(115) or Tyr(185)) amino acid residue known to be functionally important within the retinal cavity is replaced by a(More)