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Apoptosis is a genetically programmed process for the elimination of damaged or redundant cells by activation of caspases (aspartate-specific cysteine proteases). Caspases cleave vital proteins, leading the cell to fragment into vesicles that are rapidly engulfed by phagocytes (for reviews, see Hotchkiss et al., 2009; Strasser et al., 2011). Defects in(More)
Caloric restriction (CR) is proposed to decrease tumorigenesis through a variety of mechanisms including effects on glycolysis. However, the understanding of how CR affects the response to cancer therapy is still rudimentary. Here, using the Eµ-Myc transgenic mouse model of B-cell lymphoma, we report that by reducing protein translation, CR can reduce(More)
DNA-damaging chemotherapy is the backbone of cancer treatment, although it is not clear how such treatments kill tumor cells. In nontransformed lymphoid cells, the combined loss of 2 proapoptotic p53 target genes, Puma and Noxa, induces as much resistance to DNA damage as loss of p53 itself. In Eμ-Myc lymphomas, however, lack of both Puma and Noxa resulted(More)
Evasion of apoptosis contributes importantly to c-Myc-induced tumorigenesis. The BH3-only Bcl-2 family members Puma and Noxa are critical pro-apoptotic transcriptional targets of p53, a major mediator of Myc-induced apoptosis and suppressor of Myc-induced tumorigenesis. Hence, we have explored the impact of their individual or combined loss on myc-driven(More)
c-Myc transformed human Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) cells are highly sensitive to TGF-β-induced apoptosis. Previously we demonstrated that TGF-β-mediated cell death in BL cells is regulated via the mitochondrial intrinsic apoptosis pathway, which is dependent on the activation of BAX and/or BAK. TGF-β directly induces transcription of the BH3-only protein BIK(More)
There is significant interest in treating cancers by blocking protein synthesis, to which hematological malignancies seem particularly sensitive. The translation elongation inhibitor homoharringtonine (Omacetaxine mepesuccinate) is undergoing clinical trials for chronic myeloid leukemia, whereas the translation initiation inhibitor silvestrol has shown(More)
Two major processes govern T cell proliferation and survival: interleukin-7-mediated homeostasis and antigen-induced selection. How cells transit between the two states is unknown. Here we show that T cell receptor ligation actively inhibits homeostatic survival signals while initiating a new, dominant survival programme. This switch is mediated by a change(More)
  • M J Carter, K L Cox, +6 authors M S Cragg
  • Cell death and differentiation
  • 2016
Genetic recombination during B-cell development regularly results in the generation of autoreactive, potentially pathogenic B-cell receptors (BCRs). Consequently, multiple mechanisms link inappropriate BCR specificity to clonal deletion. Similar pathways remain in malignant B cells, offering the potential for targeting BCR signaling. Recently, small(More)
The tumour suppressor p53 transcriptionally regulates a range of target genes that control cell growth and survival. Mutations of p53 have been implicated in the development of approximately 50% of human cancers, including those instigated by exposure to mutagens. Although numerically rare, cancers can arise as a consequence of inherited mutations, such as(More)
Nutlin3a is a small-molecule antagonist of MDM2 that promotes non-genotoxic activation of p53 through p53 protein stabilization and transactivation of p53 target genes. Nutlin3a is the forerunner of a class of cancer therapeutics that have reached clinical trials. Using transgenic and gene-targeted mouse models lacking the critical p53 target genes, p21,(More)