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Cell polarity, as reflected by polarized growth and organelle segregation during cell division in yeast, appears to follow a simple hierarchy. On the basis of physical cues from previous cell cycles or stochastic processes, yeast cells select a site for bud emergence that also defines the axis of cell division. Once polarity is established, rho(More)
Bud growth in yeast is guided by myosin-driven delivery of secretory vesicles from the mother cell to the bud. We find transport occurs along two sets of actin cables assembled by two formin isoforms. The Bnr1p formin assembles cables that radiate from the bud neck into the mother, providing a stable mother-bud axis. These cables also depend on septins at(More)
There is a strong need for science-based risk assessment that utilizes known data from diverse sources to arrive at accurate assessments of human health risk. Such assessments will protect the public health without mandating unreasonable regulation. This paper utilizes 30 years of research on three "known human carcinogens": formaldehyde, vinyl chloride(More)
Formins are conserved eukaryotic proteins that direct the nucleation and elongation of unbranched actin filaments. The yeast formins, Bni1p and Bnr1p, assemble actin cables from the bud cortex and bud neck, respectively, to guide overall cell polarity. Here we examine the regions of Bnr1p responsible for bud neck localization. We define two non-overlapping(More)
The androgen receptor (AR) is the principal therapeutic target in prostate cancer. For the past 70 years, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been the major therapeutic focus. However, some patients do not benefit, and those tumors that do initially respond to ADT eventually progress. One recently described mechanism of such an effect is growth and(More)
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in the United States, and it is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in American men. The Androgen receptor (AR), a nuclear hormone and transcription factor, is the most therapeutically relevant target in this disease. While most efforts in the clinic are still directed at lowering levels of(More)
Metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a molecularly heterogeneous disease that is intrinsically resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Although therapies targeted to the molecules vascular endothelial growth factor and mammalian target of rapamycin have shown clinical effectiveness, their effects are variable and short-lived, underscoring the need(More)
As advanced electrodes for direct alcohol fuel cells, graphene-Pd and graphene-Pt composites with a trace of SnO(2) have been successfully synthesized by a modified electroless plating technique. The surface of graphene oxide is first sensitized by Sn(2+) ions, and subsequently, Pd or Pt nanoparticles are deposited on the surface of graphene oxide. Finally,(More)
Visual range (VR) data from 1981 to 2005 were examined for 20 meteorological monitoring sites in the Yangtze River Delta Region of China. Cumulative percentile analysis was used to construct VR trend. The 25-yr average domain-average 50% VR was approximately 21.9 +/- 1.9 km. Domain-average 50% VR decreased from 1981 to 2005 with a trend of -2.41 km/decade.(More)
Polarity is achieved partly through the localized assembly of the cytoskeleton. During growth in budding yeast, the bud cortex and neck localized formins Bni1p and Bnr1p nucleate and assemble actin cables that extend along the bud-mother axis, providing tracks for secretory vesicle delivery. Localized formins are believed to determine the location and(More)