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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority exhibited a mutational profile consistent with tobacco exposure; human papillomavirus was detectable by sequencing DNA from infected tumors.(More)
Consistent deficits in the cholinergic system are evident in the brains of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients, including reductions in the activities of acetylcholine, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), increased butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) activity, and a selective loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).(More)
WUSCHEL (WUS)-related homeobox (WOX) protein family members play important roles in the maintenance and proliferation of the stem cell niche in the shoot apical meristem (SAM), root apical meristem (RAM), and cambium (CAM). Although the roles of some WOXs in meristematic cell regulation have been well studied in annual plants such as Arabidopsis and rice,(More)
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that can pose a serious threat to human health by causing toxoplasmosis. There are no drugs that target the chronic cyst stage of this infection; therefore, development of an effective vaccine would be an important advance. Aspartic proteases play essential roles in the T. gondii lifecycle. The(More)
We study the global spatio-temporal patterns of influenza dynamics. This is achieved by analysing and modelling weekly laboratory confirmed cases of influenza A and B from 138 countries between January 2006 and January 2015. The data were obtained from FluNet, the surveillance network compiled by the the World Health Organization. We report a pattern of(More)
BACKGROUND The conversion of arginine into citrulline, termed citrullination, has important consequences for the structure and function of proteins. Studies have found PADI4, an enzyme performing citrullination, to be highly expressed in a variety of malignant tumours and have shown that PADI4 participates in the process of tumorigenesis. However, as(More)
The biosynthesis of the antibiotic epsilon-poly-lysine (ε-PL) in Streptomyces albulus is performed by polylysine synthase (pls); however, the regulatory mechanism of this process is still unknown. Here, we first obtained the complete genome sequence of S. albulus ZPM, which consists of 9,784,577 bp and has a GC content of 72.2%. The genome houses 44 gene(More)
Subcellular localization directed by specific targeting motifs is an emerging theme for regulating signal transduction pathways. For cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), this is achieved primarily by its association with A-kinase-anchoring proteins (AKAPs). Dual specificity AKAP1, (D-AKAP1) binds to both type I and type II regulatory subunits and has two(More)
The role of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion has been well documented. K(ATP) channel openers protect neuron by mimicking ischemic preconditioning. However, the different protection between the mitochondrial and sarcolemma K(ATP) openers has been seldom studied. In the experiment, we investigated the effects of(More)
The role of nitric oxide in the development of neurons is conflicting. In the present work, cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) were used as a model to assess the survival role of nitric oxide and to find novel signal transduction pathways related to this role. It is reported that sustained inhibition of nitric oxide production induces apoptosis in(More)