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Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a common, morbid, and frequently lethal malignancy. To uncover its mutational spectrum, we analyzed whole-exome sequencing data from 74 tumor-normal pairs. The majority exhibited a mutational profile consistent with tobacco exposure; human papillomavirus was detectable by sequencing DNA from infected tumors.(More)
Plants possess inducible systemic defense responses when locally infected by pathogens. Bacterial infection results in the increased accumulation of the mobile metabolite azelaic acid, a nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid, in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis that confers local and systemic resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Azelaic acid primes(More)
Exponential stabilities of the Cohen-Grossberg neural network with and without delays are analyzed. By Liapunov functions/functionals, sufficient conditions are obtained for general exponential stability, while by using a comparison result from the theory of monotone dynamical systems, componentwise exponential stability is also discussed. All results are(More)
A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the promoter of MDM2 gene, SNP309 T>G (a T-G exchange at nucleotide 309 in the first intron), can increase the expression level of MDM2, thereby causing an impairment of p53 tumor suppressor activity. A G-C exchange at p53 codon 72 polymorphism results in a substitution of proline (Pro) for arginine (Arg) in the(More)
Biological signaling processes may be mediated by complex networks in which network components and network sectors interact with each other in complex ways. Studies of complex networks benefit from approaches in which the roles of individual components are considered in the context of the network. The plant immune signaling network, which controls inducible(More)
Salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense responses are important factors during effector triggered immunity and microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-induced immunity in plants. This article presents evidence that a member of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, CBP60g, contributes to MAMP-triggered SA accumulation. CBP60g is inducible by both pathogen and(More)
BACKGROUND When ovarian carcinoma is diagnosed in stage I, up to 90% of patients can be cured with surgery and currently available chemotherapy. At present, less than 25% of cases are diagnosed at this stage. To increase the fraction of ovarian cancers detected at an early stage, screening strategies have been devised that utilize a rising serum CA125 level(More)
Genomic findings underscore the heterogeneity of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Identification of mutations that predict therapeutic response would be a major advance. We determined the mutationally altered, targetable mitogenic pathways in a large HNSCC cohort. Analysis of whole-exome sequencing data from 151 tumors revealed the(More)