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We have analyzed the maize leaf transcriptome using Illumina sequencing. We mapped more than 120 million reads to define gene structure and alternative splicing events and to quantify transcript abundance along a leaf developmental gradient and in mature bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. We detected differential mRNA processing events for most maize genes.(More)
We generated a high-quality reference genome sequence for foxtail millet (Setaria italica). The ∼400-Mb assembly covers ∼80% of the genome and >95% of the gene space. The assembly was anchored to a 992-locus genetic map and was annotated by comparison with >1.3 million expressed sequence tag reads. We produced more than 580 million RNA-Seq reads to(More)
BACKGROUND Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. METHODS We concluded a randomized trial involving 1088 patients with multiple sclerosis, 18 to 55 years of age, with a score of 0 to 5.5 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and at least one relapse in the previous year or at least two relapses(More)
An outbreak of acute respiratory disease in Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane, Australia, in September 1994 resulted in the deaths of 14 racing horses and a horse trainer. The causative agent was a new member of the family Paramyxoviridae. The virus was originally called Equine morbillivirus but was renamed Hendra virus (HeV) when molecular characterization(More)
Quality control machinery in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) helps ensure that only properly folded and assembled proteins accumulate in the ER or continue along the secretory pathway. Aberrant proteins are retrotranslocated to the cytosol and degraded by the proteasome, a process called ER-associated degradation. Doa10, a transmembrane protein of the(More)
BACKGROUND Moderate-to-severe asthma remains poorly treated. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of dupilumab (SAR231893/REGN668), a fully human monoclonal antibody to the alpha subunit of the interleukin-4 receptor, in patients with persistent, moderate-to-severe asthma and elevated eosinophil levels. METHODS We enrolled patients with persistent,(More)
Menangle virus (MenV), isolated in August 1997 following an outbreak of reproductive disease in a piggery in New South Wales, is the second previously unclassified member of the family Paramyxoviridae to be identified in Australia since 1994. Similar to Hendra virus (HeV), MenV appears to be a virus of fruit bats (flying foxes) in the genus Pteropus. No(More)
PYRIN-containing Apaf1-like proteins (PYPAFs) are members of the nucleotide-binding site/leucine-rich repeat (NBS/LRR) family of signal transduction proteins. We report here that PYPAF7 is a novel PYPAF protein that activates inflammatory signaling pathways. The expression of PYPAF7 is highly restricted to immune cells, and its gene maps to chromosome(More)
C₄ and C₃ photosynthesis differ in the efficiency with which they consume water and nitrogen. Engineering traits of the more efficient C₄ photosynthesis into C₃ crops could substantially increase crop yields in hot, arid conditions. To identify differences between C₄ and C₃ photosynthetic mechanisms, we profiled metabolites and gene expression in the(More)
A search for the natural host of Nipah virus has led to the isolation of a previously unknown member of the family Paramyxoviridae. Tioman virus (TiV) was isolated from the urine of fruit bats (Pteropus hypomelanus) found on the island of the same name off the eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia. An electron microscopic study of TiV-infected cells revealed(More)