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We have analyzed the maize leaf transcriptome using Illumina sequencing. We mapped more than 120 million reads to define gene structure and alternative splicing events and to quantify transcript abundance along a leaf developmental gradient and in mature bundle sheath and mesophyll cells. We detected differential mRNA processing events for most maize genes.(More)
Suppose that K is a nonempty closed convex subset of a uniformly convex and smooth Banach space E with P as a sunny nonexpan-sive retraction. Let T 1 , T 2 : K → E be two weakly inward nonself asymptotically nonexpansive mappings with respect to P with two sequences {k (i) n } ⊂ [1, ∞) satisfying ∞ n=1 (k (i) n − 1) < ∞ (i = 1, 2) and F (T 1) ∩ F (T 2) = {x(More)
Plants possess inducible systemic defense responses when locally infected by pathogens. Bacterial infection results in the increased accumulation of the mobile metabolite azelaic acid, a nine-carbon dicarboxylic acid, in the vascular sap of Arabidopsis that confers local and systemic resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Azelaic acid primes(More)
Exponential stabilities of the Cohen-Grossberg neural network with and without delays are analyzed. By Liapunov functions/functionals, sufficient conditions are obtained for general exponential stability, while by using a comparison result from the theory of monotone dynamical systems, componentwise exponential stability is also discussed. All results are(More)
Salicylic acid (SA)-induced defense responses are important factors during effector triggered immunity and microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP)-induced immunity in plants. This article presents evidence that a member of the Arabidopsis CBP60 gene family, CBP60g, contributes to MAMP-triggered SA accumulation. CBP60g is inducible by both pathogen and(More)
We derive an alternative expression for a delayed logistic equation, assuming that the rate of change of the population depends on three components: growth, death, and intraspecific competition, with the delay in the growth component. In our formulation, we incorporate the delay in the growth term in a manner consistent with the rate of instantaneous(More)
MOTIVATION Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies investigate how gene expression levels are affected by DNA variants. A major challenge in inferring eQTL is that a number of factors, such as unobserved covariates, experimental artifacts and unknown environmental perturbations, may confound the observed expression levels. This may both mask real(More)
BACKGROUND Teriflunomide is a new oral disease-modifying therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. METHODS We concluded a randomized trial involving 1088 patients with multiple sclerosis, 18 to 55 years of age, with a score of 0 to 5.5 on the Expanded Disability Status Scale and at least one relapse in the previous year or at least two relapses(More)