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The reinstatement model is currently used in many laboratories to investigate mechanisms underlying relapse to drug seeking. Here, we review briefly the history of the model and describe the different procedures that have been used to study the phenomenon of reinstatement of drug seeking. The results from studies using pharmacological and neuroanatomical(More)
Using a rat model of drug craving, we found that the responsiveness to cocaine cues progressively increases or incubates over the first 60 d of cocaine withdrawal. Here we studied whether alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels within the mesolimbic dopamine system are associated with this incubation phenomenon. BDNF is(More)
Using a rat model of drug craving and relapse, we recently found that cocaine seeking induced by re-exposure to drug-associated cues progressively increases over the first 2 months after withdrawal from cocaine self-administration, suggesting that drug craving incubates over time [Nature 412 (2001) 141]. Here, we summarize data from studies that further(More)
Drug use and relapse involve learned associations between drug-associated environmental cues and drug effects. Extinction procedures in the clinic can suppress conditioned responses to drug cues, but the extinguished responses typically reemerge after exposure to the drug itself (reinstatement), the drug-associated environment (renewal), or the passage of(More)
Cocaine self-administration is associated with a propensity to relapse in humans and reinstatement of drug seeking in rats after prolonged withdrawal periods. These behaviors are hypothesized to be mediated by molecular neuroadaptations within the mesolimbic dopamine system. However, in most studies of drug-induced neuroadaptations, cocaine was(More)
Cocaine addiction in humans is associated with long-term propensity to relapse. Using a rat relapse model, we found that cocaine seeking induced by exposure to cocaine-associated cues progressively increases after withdrawal. This progressive increase is associated with increases in brain-derived nerve growth factor (BDNF) levels within the mesolimbic(More)
The environmental context previously associated with opiate use plays an important role in human relapse, but the neuronal mechanisms involved in context-induced drug relapse are not known. Using a rat relapse model, we determined the effect of a group II metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist [LY379268 ((-)-2-oxa-4-aminobicylco hexane-4,6-dicarboxylic(More)
Results from studies using molecular and genetic methods in humans and rodents suggest that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the behavioral effects of abused drugs, making understanding of its genomic structure and regulation of substantial interest. Recently, we have reported that the human BDNF gene contains seven upstream exons(More)
The central problem in the treatment of cocaine and heroin addiction is high rates of relapse to drug use after periods of forced or self-imposed abstinence. Relapse can be modeled in laboratory animals a reinstatement procedure in which responding for drug is extinguished and then reinstated by acute exposure to the drug, drug cues, or stress. In this(More)
We previously found time dependent increases, or incubation, of cocaine seeking induced by re-exposure to cocaine cues over withdrawal periods of up to 3 months. Here, we studied cocaine seeking induced by re-exposure to cocaine cues or cocaine itself over an extended withdrawal period of 6 months. Rats were trained to self-administer intravenous cocaine(More)