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Many members of the TGF-beta superfamily are indicated to play important roles in ovarian follicular development, such as affecting granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation. Abnormalities associated with TGF-beta1 signaling transduction could result in female infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs, were recently found to regulate gene(More)
Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals(More)
Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke and other forms of ischemic brain injury. Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory response is a double-edged sword, as it not only exacerbates secondary brain injury in the acute stage of stroke but also beneficially contributes to brain recovery after stroke. In this(More)
Patients with dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a disorder of telomere maintenance, suffer degeneration of multiple tissues. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent invaluable in vitro models for human degenerative disorders like DC. A cardinal feature of iPS cells is acquisition of indefinite self-renewal capacity, which is accompanied(More)
Software defined networking (SDN) and flexible grid optical transport technology are two key technologies that allow network operators to customize their infrastructure based on application requirements and therefore minimizing the extra capital and operational costs required for hosting new applications. In this paper, for the first time we report on(More)
Telomere shortening can lead to chromosome instability, replicative senescence, and apoptosis in both somatic and male germ cells. To study roles for mammalian telomeres in homologous pairing and recombination, we characterized effects of telomere shortening on spermatogenesis and oogenesis in late-generation telomerase-deficient mice. We show that(More)
Late generations of telomerase-null (TR(-/-)) mice exhibit progressive defects in highly proliferative tissues and organs and decreased fertility, ultimately leading to sterility. To determine effects of telomerase deficiency on germ cells, we investigated the cleavage and preimplantation development of embryos derived from both in vivo and in vitro(More)
Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have(More)
BACKGROUND Many different laparoscopic techniques for pediatric inguinal hernia (PIH) have been developed, with a trend toward increasing use of extracorporeal knotting and decreasing use of working ports. Single-port laparoscopic percutaneous extraperitoneal closure is one of the most simple and reliable methods. We describe our modifications of(More)
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily. As an oocyte-specific growth factor, GDF9 plays critical roles in controlling folliculogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we cloned a 2.1-kb cDNA of the zebrafish GDF9 homolog (Gdf9, gdf9), which shares approximately 60% homology with that of(More)