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Patients with dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a disorder of telomere maintenance, suffer degeneration of multiple tissues. Patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent invaluable in vitro models for human degenerative disorders like DC. A cardinal feature of iPS cells is acquisition of indefinite self-renewal capacity, which is accompanied(More)
Liver cirrhosis occurs as a consequence of many chronic liver diseases that are prevalent worldwide. Here we characterize the gut microbiome in liver cirrhosis by comparing 98 patients and 83 healthy control individuals. We build a reference gene set for the cohort containing 2.69 million genes, 36.1% of which are novel. Quantitative metagenomics reveals(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We followed patients with ongoing hepatitis C virus (HCV) exposure following control of an initial HCV infection to determine whether primary control conferred protection against future persistent infections. METHODS Twenty-two active injection drug users (IDU) who had cleared a primary hepatitis C viremia for at least 60 days were(More)
Growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) is a member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) superfamily. As an oocyte-specific growth factor, GDF9 plays critical roles in controlling folliculogenesis in mammals. In the present study, we cloned a 2.1-kb cDNA of the zebrafish GDF9 homolog (Gdf9, gdf9), which shares approximately 60% homology with that of(More)
Many members of the TGF-beta superfamily are indicated to play important roles in ovarian follicular development, such as affecting granulosa cell function and oocyte maturation. Abnormalities associated with TGF-beta1 signaling transduction could result in female infertility. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), as small noncoding RNAs, were recently found to regulate gene(More)
OBJECTIVE Telomeres are DNA repeats which cap and protect chromosome ends, facilitate homologue pairing and chiasmata formation during early meiosis, and shorten with cell division and exposure to reactive oxygen to mediate aging. Early germ cells contain telomerase, a reverse transcriptase which adds telomeres to 3-prime DNA ends, but telomerase activity(More)
Immunomodulatory proteins encoded by the larger DNA viruses interact with a wide spectrum of immune effector molecules that regulate the antiviral response in the infected host. Here we show that certain poxviruses, including myxoma virus. Shope fibroma virus, rabbitpox virus, vaccinia virus (strain Lister), cowpox virus, and raccoonpox virus, express a new(More)
Telomerase and telomeres are important for indefinite replication of stem cells. Recently, telomeres of somatic cells were found to be reprogrammed to elongate in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). The role of telomeres in developmental pluripotency in vivo of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) or iPSCs, however, has not been directly addressed. We show that(More)
Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have(More)
Deregulated microRNAs participate in carcinogenesis and cancer progression, but their roles in cancer development remain unclear. In this study, miR-365 expression was found to be downregulated in human colon cancer tissues as compared with that in matched non-neoplastic mucosa tissues, and its downregulation was correlated with cancer progression and poor(More)